Το Έμπλα (σουμεριακά : 𒌈𒆷 eb₂-la ; αραβικά : إبلا‎, modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) ήταν ένα από τα πρώιμα βασίλεια στην Συρία. Τα ερείπιά του σχηματίζουν μια μύτη και βρίσκεται περίπου 55 χλμ ΝΔ του Χαλεπίου. Το Έμπλα ήταν ένα σημαντικό κέντρο καθ'όλη την 3η χιλιετία πΧ και το πρώτο μισό της 2ης χιλιετίας πΧ. Η ανακάλυψή του απέδειξε ότι το Λεβάντε ήταν κέντρο αρχαίου, συγκεντρωτικού πολιτισμού, ισότιμου με την Αίγυπτο και την Μεσοποταμία, και απέκλεισε την πεποίθηση ότι τα δυο τελευταία βασίλεια ήταν τα μόνα σημαντικά κέντρα στην Εγγύς Ανατολή κατά την πρώιμη εποχή του χαλκού. Το πρώτο βασίλειο του Έμπλα περιγράφεται ως η πρώτη καταγεγραμμένη παγκόσμια δύναμη.

Ebla
HPIM3078 1.JPG
Ruins of the outer wall and the "Damascus Gate"
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Άλλες ονομασίεςTell Mardikh
تل مرديخ
ΤοποθεσίαIdlib Governorate, Συρία
Συντεταγμένες35°47′53″N 36°47′53″E / 35.798°N 36.798°E / 35.798; 36.798Συντεταγμένες: 35°47′53″N 36°47′53″E / 35.798°N 36.798°E / 35.798; 36.798
Είδοςsettlement
Ιστορία
Ίδρυσηc. 3500 BC
Εγκατάλειψη7ος αιώνας μΧ
ΠερίοδοιΕποχή του Χαλκού
ΠολιτισμοίKish civilization, Amorite
Σημειώσεις
Ημερομηνίες ανασκαφών1964–2011
ΑρχαιολόγοιPaolo Matthiae
Κατάστασηερείπια
Ιδιοκτησίαδημόσιο
Πρόσβαση κοινούναι

Ξεκινώντας ως ένας μικρός οικισμός στην πρώιμη εποχή του χαλκού (περίπου 3500 πΧ), ο Έμπλα εξελίχθηκε σε εμπορική αυτοκρατορία και αργότερα σε μια επεκτατική δύναμη που επέβαλε την ηγεμονία της σε μεγάλο μέρος της βόρειας και ανατολικής Συρίας. Το Έμπλα καταστράφηκε τον 23ο αιώνα πΧ και αργότερα ξαναχτίστηκε καθώς αναφέρεται στα αρχεία της Τρίτης Δυναστείας του Ουρ. Το δεύτερο βασίλειο του Έμπλα αποτελεί συνέχεια του πρώτου και κυβερνήθηκε από μια νέα βασιλική δυναστεία. Το τρίτο βασίλειο Έμπλα άνθισε επίσης ως εμπορικό κέντρο και έγινε σύμμαχος του Γιαμάντ (σύγχρονο Χαλέπι) μέχρι την οριστική καταστροφή του από τον Χετταίο βασιλιά Μουρίλι Α' το 1600 πΧ.

Το Έμπλα διατήρησε την ευημερία του μέσω ενός τεράστιου δικτύου συναλλαγών. Έργα τέχνης από τους Σουμέριους, την Κύπρο, την Αίγυπτο και μέχρι το Αφγανιστάν ανακτήθηκαν από τα παλάτια της πόλης. Το βασίλειο είχε την δική του γλώσσα και η πολιτική οργάνωσή του είχε χαρακτηριστικά διαφορετικά από εκείνη των Σουμερίων. Οι γυναίκες απολάμβαναν ένα ιδιαίτερο καθεστώς και η βασίλισσα είχε μεγάλη επιρροή στο κράτος και στις θρησκευτικές υποθέσεις. Το πάνθεον των θεών ήταν κυρίως σημιτικό και περιλάμβανε θεότητες που ήταν αποκλειστικά για αυτό το βασίλειο. Η πόλη Έμπλα ανασκάφηκε το 1964 και έγινε διάσημη για τα δισκία, δηλ. για ένα αρχείο με περίπου 20.000 σφηνοειδή δισκία με ημερομηνία το 2350 πΧ. Γραμμένα τόσο στα σουμεριακά όσο και στην εμπλαϊκή γλώσσα και χρησιμοποιώντας το σφηνοειδές σχήμα, το αρχείο αυτό επέτρεψε την καλύτερη χρήση της σουμερικής γλώσσας και παρείχε σημαντικές πληροφορίες για την πολιτική οργάνωση και τα κοινωνικά έθιμα στο Λεβάντε στα μέσα της 3ης χιλιετίας πΧ.

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Περαιτέρω μελέτηΕπεξεργασία

  • Marchetti, Nicolò; Nigro, Lorenzo (1997). «Cultic Activities in the Sacred Area of Ishtar at Ebla during the Old Syrian Period: The "Favissae" F.5327 and F.5238». Journal of Cuneiform Studies (The American Schools of Oriental Research) 49: 1–44. doi:10.2307/1359889. ISSN 0022-0256. 
  • Matthiae, Paolo (1976). «Ebla in the Late Early Syrian Period: The Royal Palace and the State Archives». The Biblical Archaeologist (The American Schools of Oriental Research) 39 (3): 94–113. doi:10.2307/3209400. ISSN 0006-0895. 

Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοιΕπεξεργασία