Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Πάπας Αδριανός Δ΄»

{{Infobox Pope|
English name=Adrian IV|
image=[[Image:Pope Hadrian IV.jpg|150px]]|
birth_name=Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare|
term_start=December 4, 1154|
term_end=September 1, 1159|
predecessor=[[Pope Anastasius IV|Anastasius IV]]|
successor=[[Pope Alexander III|Alexander III]]|
birth_date=c. [[1100]]
[[Hertfordshire]], [[England]] |
dead=dead|death_date={{death date|1159|9|1|mf=y}}|
deathplace=[[Anagni]], [[Papal States]], [[Holy Roman Empire]]|
|όνομα = Αδριανός Δ΄
|εικόνα = [[Image:Pope Hadrian IV.jpg|150px]]
|από = [[4 Δεκεμβρίου|04-12]] [[1154]]
|έως = [[1 Σεπτεμβρίου|01-09]] [[1159]]
|προκάτοχος = [[Πάπας Αναστάσιος Δ΄|Αναστάσιος Δ΄]]
|διάδοχος = [[Πάπας Αλέξανδρος Γ΄|Αλέξανδρος Γ΄]]
Ο '''Πάπας Αδριανός Δ΄''' (c. 1100&ndash;1 September 1159),<ref name=encyc>{{ws|"[[s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Pope Adrian IV|Pope Adrian IV]]" in the 1913 ''Catholic Encyclopedia''}}</ref> γεννημένος ως '''Nicholas Breakspear''' ή '''Breakspeare''', ήταν [[Πάπας]] από το 1154 μέχρι το 1159.
Ο Αδριανός Δ΄είναι ο μόνος [[Αγγλία|Άγγλος]] που κατέλαβε τηντον παπικήπαπικό καρέκλαθρόνο.<ref>{{cite book|last=Mackie|first=John Duncan|title=Pope Adrian IV: The Lothian Essay, 1907|publisher=Blackwell|date=1907|pages=p2|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=aLY-AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA2&vq=englishman&dq=%22Pope+Adrian+IV%22+englishman&source=gbs_search_s}}</ref><ref name=Tull>[http://www.churchinhistory.org/pages/leaflets/englishpope.htm The English Pope by George F. Tull]</ref> Πιστεύεται γενικά ότι ο Νίκολας Μπρέϊκσπηρ γεννήθηκε στο Αγρόκτημα Μπρέϊκσπηρ.<ref>{{cite book
|last= Clark
|first= Clive W.
|pages= 1
|chapter= Prologue
}}</ref><ref name=Cath>[http://www.stalbanscathedral.org.uk/societies/adrian-iv.htm St Albans Cathedral]</ref><ref>Breakspear Farm was demolished for housing redevelopment in the 1960s. It stood at {{Coord|51|43|8|N|0|24|41|W|display=inline}}</ref><ref>[http://www.hertfordshire-genealogy.co.uk/data/answers/answers-2005/ans5-012-breakspear.htm Hertfordshire Genealogy]</ref> inστην theενορία parish of [[''Abbots Langley]]'' inστο [[Hertfordshire]] and received his early education at the Abbey School, [[St Albans]] ([[St Albans School (Hertfordshire)|St Albans SchoolΧέρτφονρντσαϊρ]]).
==Πρώτα χρόνια==
His father was Robert who later became a monk at [[St Albans Abbey|St Albans]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Mackie|first=John Duncan|title=Pope Adrian IV: The Lothian Essay, 1907|publisher=Blackwell|date=1907|pages=p13|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=aLY-AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA13&vq=left+his+native+village&dq=%22Pope+Adrian+IV%22+englishman&source=gbs_search_s}}</ref> Nicholas himself, however, was refused admission to the monastery, being told by the [[abbot]] to 'wait to go on with his schooling so that he might be considered more suitable' (Abbey chronicles). In the event he did not wait and went instead to [[Paris]] and finally became a [[canon regular]] of the cloister of St. Rufus monastery near [[Arles]]. He rose to be [[prior]] and soon thereafter was unanimously elected abbot.<ref name=Tull /> This election has been traditionally dated to 1137,<ref name=Tull /> but evidence from the abbey's chronicles suggests it occurred about 1145.<ref>He is mentioned for the first time as abbot on January 29, 1147; his predecessor Fulchier appears for the last time in 1143. See Brenda Bolton, Anne Duggan, [http://books.google.com/books?id=uVrPrUDnuNUC&pg=PA291&dq=Pope+Adrian+IV&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U3I_NaqlCPZ4G9MA0n8rGRPJKXKkg#PPA25,M1 Adrian IV, the English Pope, 1154-1159: Studies and Texts], Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, p. 25</ref>
His reforming zeal as abbot led to the lodging of complaints against him at [[Rome]]; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of [[Pope Eugene III]] (1145&ndash;1153), who created him [[Catholic Cardinal|cardinal]] [[bishop of Albano]] in December 1149.<ref>Brenda Bolton, Anne Duggan, [http://books.google.com/books?id=uVrPrUDnuNUC&pg=PA291&dq=Pope+Adrian+IV&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U3I_NaqlCPZ4G9MA0n8rGRPJKXKkg#PPA25,M1 Adrian IV, the English Pope, 1154-1159: Studies and Texts], Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, p. 26, 42 and 75</ref>
From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in [[Scandinavia]] as [[papal legate]], organizing the affairs of the new [[Norway|Norwegian]] [[archbishopric of Nidaros]] (now [[Trondheim]]), creating the diocese at [[Hamar]], and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of [[Gamla Uppsala]] (later moved to [[Uppsala]]) as seat of the [[Sweden|Swedish]] metropolitan in 1164. As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the [[Denmark|Danish]] archbishop of [[Lund]] was made legate and perpetual [[vicar]] and given the title of [[primate (religion)|primate]] of Denmark and Sweden.
{{See also|Henry, Bishop of Uppsala}}
==Accession as Pope==
;{{Main|Papal election, 1154}}
On his return Nicholas was received with great honour by [[Pope Anastasius IV]] (1153&ndash;1154). On the death of Anastasius, Nicholas was elected [[pope]] on 3 December 1154.<ref>{{cite book|last=Burke, O.P.|first=Very Rev. Thomas N. |title=English Misrule in Ireland: A Course of Lectures in Reply to J. A Froude|publisher=Lynch, Cole & Meehan |location=New York |date=1873|volume=1|pages=27|chapter=1}}</ref> He at once endeavoured to bring down [[Arnold of Brescia]], the leader of the anti-papal faction in Rome. Disorder within the city led to the murder of a cardinal, causing Adrian IV, shortly before [[Palm Sunday]] 1155, to take the previously unheard-of step of putting Rome under [[Interdict (Roman Catholic Church)|interdict]]. The [[Roman Senate|Senate]] (City Council of Rome) thereupon exiled Arnold.
==The Byzantine Alliance==
[[Image:PopeAdrianIVCameo.jpg|thumb|Pope Adrian IV cameo.]]
In 1155, [[Byzantine Emperor]] [[Manuel Comnenus]] invaded [[Italy]] from the south, landing his forces in the region of [[Apulia]]. Making contact with local rebels who were hostile to the [[Sicily|Sicilian]] crown, [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] forces quickly overran the coastlands and began striking inland. Pope Adrian IV watched these developments with some satisfaction. The Papacy was never on good terms with the [[Normans]] of [[Sicily]], except when under duress by the threat of direct military action. Having the "civilised" [[Eastern Roman Empire]] on its southern border was infinitely preferable to Adrian than having to constantly deal with the troublesome Normans. Therefore, negotiations were hurriedly carried out, and an alliance was formed between Adrian and Manuel. Adrian undertook to raise a body of mercenary troops from [[Campania]]. Meanwhile, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the [[Roman Empire]]; this was, however, at the cost of a potential union between the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] and the [[Catholic Church]]. Negotiations for union of the eastern and western churches, which had been in a state of schism since 1054, soon got underway. The combined Papal-Byzantine forces joined with the rebels against the [[Normans]] in [[Southern Italy]], achieving a string of rapid successes as a number of cities yielded either to the threat of force or to the lure of gold. The future looked bleak for the Sicilians.
It was at this point, just as the war seemed decided in the allies' favour, that things started to go wrong. The Byzantine commander Michael Palaeologus alienated some of his allies by his arrogance, and this stalled the campaign as rebel Count [[Robert II of Bassunvilla|Robert of Loritello]] refused to speak to him. Although the two were reconciled, the campaign lost some of its momentum. Yet worse was to come: Michael was soon recalled to Constantinople. Although his arrogance had slowed the campaign, he was a brilliant general in the field, and his loss was a major blow to the allied campaign. The turning point was the Battle for [[Brindisi]], where the Sicilians launched a major counter attack by both land and sea. At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries that were serving in the allied armies demanded impossible rises in their pay. When this was refused, they deserted. Even the local barons started to melt away, and soon Adrian's Byzantine allies were left hopelessly outnumbered. The naval battle was decided in the Sicilians' favour, and the Byzantine commander was captured. The defeat at Brindisi put an end to the restored Byzantine reign in Italy, and by 1158 the [[Byzantine Army]] had left Italy.
Hopes for a lasting alliance with the [[Byzantine Empire]] had also come up against insuperable problems. Pope Adrian IV's conditions for a union between the eastern and western church included recognition of his religious authority over all Christians everywhere, and the Emperor's recognition of his secular authority. Neither East nor West could accept such conditions. Adrian's secular powers were too valuable to be rendered; Manuel's subjects could never have accepted the authority of the distant Pope in Rome. In spite of his friendliness towards the Roman Church, Adrian never felt able to honour Manuel with the title of "Augustus". Ultimately, a deal proved elusive, and the two churches have remained divided ever since.
==Adrian IV and Ireland==
According to the historian [[Edmund Curtis]], it is said that Adrian IV, granted the so-called Bull '[[Laudabiliter]]', three years after the Synod of Kells, in 1155. The purported bull commissioned King Henry II of England to invade Ireland to reform its Church and people. Whether this donation is genuine or not, Curtis says, is one of "''the great questions of history''." He states that the matter was discussed at a royal council at Winchester, but that Henry's mother, the Empress Matilda, had protested against it. In Ireland however, nothing seems to have been known of it, and no provision had been made against English aggression.<ref>{{cite book|last=Curtis|first=Edmund|title=A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922|publisher=Routledge|location=New York|date=2002|pages=38-39|isbn=0 415 27949 6}}</ref> Ernest F. Henderson states that the existence of this Bull is doubted by many <ref name=avalon>[http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/bullad.asp Avalon Project, Yale]</ref> while, in noting that its authenticity has been questioned without success, P. S. O'Hegarty suggests that the question is now purely an academic one.<ref>{{cite book|last=O’Hegarty|first=P. S. |title=The Indestructible Nation|publisher=Maunsel & Company, Ltd|location=Dublin & London |date=1918|volume=1|pages=3|chapter=1}}</ref>
==Barbarossa and the death of Adrian IV==
At the [[diet (assembly)|diet]] of [[Besançon]] in October 1157, the legates presented to [[Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor|Barbarossa]] a letter from Adrian IV which alluded to the ''beneficia'' or "benefits" conferred upon the Emperor, and the German chancellor translated this ''beneficia'' in the feudal sense of the presentation of property from a lord to a vassal ([[benefice]]). Barbarossa was infuriated by the suggestion that he was dependent on the Pope, and in the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the Pope, declaring that by ''beneficium'' he meant merely ''bonum factum'' or "a good deed," the coronation. The breach subsequently became wider, and Adrian IV was about to [[excommunication|excommunicate]] the Emperor when he (Adrian) died at [[Anagni]] on 1 September 1159, reputedly choking on a fly in his wine, but probably of [[Peritonsillar abscess|quinsy]]<ref name=Cath />.
His biography was first written by [[Boso Breakspeare|Cardinal Boso]] in his extension to the [[Liber Pontificalis]].<ref name="boso">{{ws|"[[s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Boso (Breakspear)|Boso (Breakspear)]]" in the 1913 ''Catholic Encyclopedia''}}. This source indicates that Boso was a [[cardinal-nephew]] of Adrian IV, but more recent sources say that this is incorrect (B. Zenker, ''Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159'', Würzburg 1964 p. 149).</ref>
==Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι==
==External links==
*[http://www.wardsbookofdays.com/1september.htm Nicolas Brakespeare. A very British Pope @ ''Ward's Book of Days'']
{{s-bef|before=[[Pietro Papareschi]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Bishop of Albano]]|years=1149&ndash;1154}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Pope Anastasius IV|Anastasius IV]]}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Pope Alexander III|Alexander III]]}}
{{History of the Roman Catholic Church}}
<!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] -->
|NAME= Adrian IV, Pope
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Hadrian IV, Pope; Breakspeare, Nicholas; Breakspear, Nicholas; Nicholas of Albano
|SHORT DESCRIPTION=[[Pope]] from 1154 to 1159
|DATE OF BIRTH=c. 1100
|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Hertfordshire]], [[England]]
|DATE OF DEATH=1159-9-1
|PLACE OF DEATH=[[Anagni]], [[Italy]]
{{DEFAULTSORT:Adrian 04}}
[[Category:English cardinals]]
[[Category:English popes]]
[[Category:Cardinal-bishops of Albano]]
[[Category:12th-century Roman Catholic bishops]]
[[Category:12th-century English people]]
[[Category:Diplomats of the Holy See]]
[[Category:Apostolic Nuncios to Scandinavia]]
[[Category:Augustinian canons]]
[[Category:People from Hertfordshire]]
[[Category:People from St Albans]]
[[Category:Deaths from quinsy]]
[[Category:Former pupils of St Albans School, Hertfordshire]]
[[Category:1100s births]]
[[Category:1159 deaths]]
{{Πάπες Ρώμης}}
{{DEFAULTSORT:Αδριανός 04}}<!--Είναι εσκεμμένα άτονο, παρακαλώ μην το τονίζετε-->
[[af:Pous Adrianus IV]]
[[ca:Adrià IV]]