Τρίτο φύλο: Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων

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(Νέα σελίδα: {{Μετάφραση}} [[Εικόνα:Anna P.jpg|thumb|upright|Ο Άννα Π. έζησε για πολλά χρόνια ως άντρας στη Γερμανία, και φω...)
 
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[[Εικόνα:Anna P.jpg|thumb|upright|Ο Άννα Π. έζησε για πολλά χρόνια ως άντρας στη Γερμανία, και φωτογραφήθηκε για το βιβλίο του [[Magnus Hirschfeld]], ''[[Sexual Intermediates]]'', το 1922. Σήμερα ο Άννα πιθανότατα θα θεωρούνταν [[τρανς άντρας]] με τη μοντέρνα ορολογία.]]
 
Το '''τρίτο φύλο''' είναι ένας [[ρόλος φύλου]] σε διάφορες κοινωνίες που προορίζεται για ανθρώπους που δεν είναι ούτε εντελώς [[άντρες]] ούτε εντελώς [[γυναίκες]]. Είναι μια [[ταυτότητα φύλου]] που είναι ανεξάρτητη από τις έννοιες άντρας και γυναίκα. Τα τρίτα φύλα είναι άτομα ενδιάμεσου φύλου (όπως τα [[ανδρόγυνο|ανδρόγυνα]]) ή ουδέτερου φύλου (όπως τα [[άφυλα άτομα]]).
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Although contemporary connotations often confuse 'third gender' with [[hermaphrodites]], biological hermaphrodites actually comprise a very small percentage of the third genders.
Biologically speaking, a hermaphrodite is a person who has both male and female sex organs. However, gender identity is psychological and societal as well as physical, explaining why the majority of individuals who occupy the third gender are physically either male or female, not both.
 
While most medieval and contemporary societies consider such people to be neither male nor female, the most traditional cultures in which they existed considered third genders to be both male and female, or partly male and partly female. They were thus known in some indigenous societies as 'two spirited people,' and as such were given often revered. Indeed, they were widely believed to be people with spiritual powers, even god-like in many traditional cultures.
 
Traditional societies in which the third gender role was present had a well defined social space for the third genders, one that was apart from the [[men's spaces]] and women's spaces. They had their own [[gender roles]], separate from both men and women. Furthermore, third genders had access to both men's and women's spaces, whereas the access of men and women to the other's social spaces was often restricted. Third genders continued to have a separate space and identity in the middle ages although their status went on diminishing.
 
Like masculine roles and identity, the third gender roles have changed drastically from the way they were perceived in the ancient world. For most of the middle ages, third genders were defined as males 'unable to penetrate women and procreate due to physical inadequacy.' [needs citation] This definition hinged on the view of the third genders as hermaphrodites, and was used to stigmatize the third genders and ultimately used as a banishment threat for men through which they were forced to conform to the marriage institution and to compulsory procreation. The roles of the third genders in most of the Indo-European medieval world included receptive anal sex with men, where the third genders were seen as using their anus or mouth as a substitute for vagina, and as a fulfillment of their inner female self. The majority of third genders consisted of transgendered males: males with a strong feminine identity, also known as 'female soul in male body.' In many cultures some third genders also opted for castration in an effort to remove physical evidence of masculinity. Other third genders included hermaphrodites, intersexed persons, transgendered females, etc.
 
Although third genders in pre-modern times partook in sexual activities with both men, women and other third genders, documentation from some of the ancient tribes show that most third genders participated in marriages with women and even reproduced.
 
Throughout the majority of the modernized world, the third genders have been ostracized and marginalized, remaining on the fringes of the society. For most of the [[Middle Ages]], individuals in the West, who were classified as 'third gender' retreated from society limelight because of religious persecution. In these societies, the third gender roles and identities have been redefined in terms of the contemporary Western concepts of [[sexual orientation]] as well as transgender identity, and have become associated with [[LGBT]].
 
Third gender identities, although far more stigmatized than earlier, still thrive in the non-Western world today. Among these are the [[Hijra (South Asia)|Hijra]]s of [[India]] and [[Pakistan]]<ref>Agrawal, Anuja (1997). ''Gendered Bodies: The Case of the ‘Third Gender’ in India,'' Contributions to Indian Sociology, n.s., 31 (1997): 273–97</ref> who have gained legal identity, [[Fa'afafine]] of Polynesia, and [[Sworn virgin]]s of the Balkans,<ref name="Young">Young, Antonia (2000). ''Women Who Become Men: Albanian Sworn Virgins.'' ISBN 1-85973-335-2</ref> , and the term 'third gender' is still used by many of such groups to describe themselves.
 
 
==Third sex in biology==
[[Image:Sparrow, White throated.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The white-striped form of the [[white-throated sparrow]], which has two distinct female and two male [[Polymorphism (biology)|morph]]s.]]
In animals that are [[gonochoristic]], a number of individuals within a population will not [[sexual differentiation|differentiate sexually]] into bodies that are typically [[male]] or [[female]]; this is called [[intersexuality]]. The incidence varies from population to population, and also varies depending on how femaleness and maleness are understood. Biologist and gender theorist [[Anne Fausto-Sterling]], in a 1993 article, argued that if people ought to be classified in sexes at least five sexes rather than two, would be needed.<ref>{{cite journal |author=[[Anne Fausto-Sterling|Fausto-Sterling, Anne]] |title=The Five Sexes: Why male and female are not enough|journal=[[The Sciences]] |year=1993|issue=May/April [[1993]]|pages=20–25}} [http://www.mtsu.edu/~phollowa/5sexes.html Article online].</ref>
 
[[Evolution]]ary biologist [[Joan Roughgarden]] argues that, in addition to male and female sexes (as defined by the production of small or large [[gamete]]s), more than two ''[[gender]]s'' exist in hundreds of animal species.<ref name="roughgarden">Roughgarden, Joan (2004). ''Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People''. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24073-1 Especially chapter 6, ''Multiple Gender Families'', pp. 75 - 105.</ref> Species with one female and two male genders include [[red deer]] who have two male [[Polymorphism (biology)|morph]]s, one with antlers and one without, known as ''hummels'' or ''notts'', as well as several species of fish such as plainfin [[midshipman fish]] and [[coho salmon]].<ref>Ibid, p. 76 - 78</ref> Species with one female and three male genders include [[bluegill]] sunfish, where four distinct size and color classes exhibit different [[social behaviour|social]] and [[reproduction|reproductive behaviour]]s, as well as the spotted European [[wrasse]] (''Symphodus ocellatus''), a [[cichlid]] (''Oreochromis mossambicus'') and a kind of tree lizard, ''[[Urosaurus ornatus]]''.<ref>pp. 78 - 88</ref> Species with two male and two female genders include the [[white-throated sparrow]], in which male and female morphs are either white-striped or tan-striped. White-striped individuals are more aggressive and defend [[Territory (animal)|territory]], while tan-striped individuals provide more parental care. Ninety percent of breeding pairs are between a tan striped and a white striped sparrow.<ref>Ibid, pp 89 - 90</ref> Finally, the highest number of distinct male and female morphs or "genders" within a species is found in the [[side-blotched lizard]], which has five altogether: orange-throated males, who are "ultra-dominant, high [[testosterone]]" controllers of multiple females; blue-throated males, who are less aggressive and guard only one female; yellow-throated males, who don't defend territories at all but cluster around the territories of orange males; orange-throated females, who lay many small eggs and are very territorial; and yellow-throated females, who lay fewer, larger eggs and are more tolerant of each other.<ref>Ibid, pp. 90 - 93</ref>
 
==Third gender in contemporary societies==
Since at least the 1970s, [[Anthropology|anthropologists]] have described [[gender role|gender categories]] in some cultures which they could not adequately explain using a two-gender framework.<ref name ="Martin">Martin, M. Kay and Voorhies, Barbara (1975). ''Supernumerary Sexes,'' chapter 4 of Female of the Species (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975), 23.</ref> At the same time, [[Feminism|feminists]] began to draw a distinction between (biological) [[sex]] and (social/psychological) [[gender]]. Contemporary [[gender studies|gender theorists]] usually argue that a two-gender system is neither innate nor universal. A sex/gender system which recognizes only the following two social [[Norm (sociology)|norms]] has been labeled "[[heteronormative]]":
 
* female genitalia = female identity = feminine behavior = desire male partner
* male genitalia = male identity = masculine behavior = desire female partner
 
===The Indian subcontinent===
[[Image:Mona ahmed book cover.jpg|thumb|right|"I am the third sex, not a man trying to be a woman. It is your society's problem that you only recognize two sexes." ([[Hijra (South Asia)|Hijra]] Mona Ahmed to author Dayanita Singh).]]
The [[Hijra (South Asia)|Hijra]]<ref>Talwar, Rajesh (1999). ''The Third sex and Human Rights'', Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 81-212-0266-3</ref> of India are probably the most well known and populous third sex type in the modern world — [[Mumbai]]-based community health organisation The Humsafar Trust estimates there are between 5 and 6 million hijras in India. In different areas they are known as Aravani/Aruvani or Jogappa. Often (somewhat misleadingly) called [[eunuch]]s in [[English language|English]], they may be born [[intersex]] or apparently [[male]], dress in feminine clothes and generally see themselves as neither men nor women. Only eight percent of hijras visiting Humsafar clinics are ''nirwaan'' ([[castration|castrated]]). [[India]]n photographer [[Dayanita Singh]] writes about her friendship with a Hijra, Mona Ahmed, and their two different societies' beliefs about gender: "When I once asked her if she would like to go to [[Singapore]] for a [[sex change operation]], she told me, 'You really do not understand. I am the third sex, not a man trying to be a woman. It is your society's problem that you only recognise two sexes.'"<ref>''Myself Mona Ahmed''. by Dayanita Singh (Photographer) and Mona Ahmed. Scalo Publishers (September 15, 2001). ISBN 3-908247-46-2</ref> Hijra [[social movement]]s have campaigned for recognition as a third sex,<ref>''India's eunuchs demand rights'', by Habib Beary, BBC correspondent in Bangalore. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3080116.stm Article online].</ref> and in 2005, Indian passport application forms were updated with three gender options: M, F, and E (for male, female, and eunuch, respectively).<ref>''‘Third sex’ finds a place on Indian passport forms'', The Telegraph, March 10, 2005. [http://www.infochangeindia.org/archives1.jsp?secno=13&monthname=June&year=2005&detail=T Article online]</ref> Some Indian languages such as Sanskrit have three gender options. In November 2009, India agreed to list eunuchs and transgender people as "others", distinct from males and females, in voting rolls and voter identity cards.<ref name=BBC-20091223>{{cite news|title=Pakistani eunuchs to have distinct gender |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8428819.stm|date=December 23, 2009|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=2009-12-23}}</ref>
 
In addition to the feminine role of [[hijra (South Asia)|hijras]], which is widespread across the [[subcontinent]], a few occurrences of institutionalised "female masculinity" have been noted in modern India. Among the [[Gaddhi]] in the foothills of the [[Himalayas]], some girls adopt a role as a ''sadhin'', renouncing marriage, and dressing and working as men, but retaining female names and pronouns.<ref>Phillimore, Peter (1991). ''Unmarried Women of the Dhaula Dhar: Celibacy and Social Control in Northwest India.'' Journal of Anthropological Research 47 (3): 331-50.</ref> A late-nineteenth century anthropologist noted the existence of a similar role in [[Madras]], that of the ''basivi''.<ref>Fawcett, Fred (1891). ''On Basivis: Women Who, through Dedication to a Deity, Assume Masculine Privileges.'' Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay (July). Bombay: Education Society's Press; London: Treubner.</ref> However, historian Walter Penrose concludes that in both cases "their status is perhaps more 'transgendered' than 'third-gendered.'"<ref>Penrose, Walter (2001). ''Hidden in History: Female Homoeroticism and Women of a "Third Nature" in the South Asian Past,'' Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.1</ref>
 
===Pakistan===
{{main|Hijra (South Asia)}}
In June 2009, the [[Supreme Court of Pakistan|Supreme Court]] of [[Pakistan]] ordered a census of hijras, who number between 80,000<ref name=EconomicTimes>{{cite news|title=People defaulting on bank loans? Use eunuchs to recover: Pak SC|url=http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/et-cetera/People-defaulting-on-bank-loans-Use-eunuchs-to-recover-Pak-SC/articleshow/5370938.cms|date=December 24, 2009|publisher=Bennett Coleman|work=The Economic Times|accessdate=2009-12-23}}</ref> and 300,000 in Pakistan.<ref name=Haider-20091223 /> In December 2009, [[Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry]], the [[Chief Justice of Pakistan]], ordered that the National Database and Registration Authority<ref name=EconomicTimes /> issue national identity cards to members of the community showing their "distinct" gender.<ref name=Haider-20091223 /><ref>{{cite news|author=Masood, Salman|title=Pakistan: A Legal Victory for Eunuchs |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/24/world/asia/24webbriefs-ALEGALVICTOR_BRF.html|date=December 23, 2009|publisher=The New York Times|accessdate=2009-12-23}}</ref> "It's the first time in the 62-year history of Pakistan that such steps are being taken for our welfare," Almas Bobby, a hijra association's president, said to Reuters. "It's a major step towards giving us respect and identity in society. We are slowly getting respect in society. Now people recognise that we are also human beings."<ref name=Haider-20091223>{{cite news|author=Haider, Zeeshan|title=Pakistan's transvestites to get distinct gender|url=http://in.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idINTRE5BM2BX20091223|date=December 23, 2009|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2009-12-23}}</ref>
 
===Thailand===
Also commonly referred to as a third sex are the [[kathoey]]s (or "ladyboys") of [[Thailand]].<ref>Totman, Richard, (2004). ''The Third Sex: Kathoey: Thailand's Ladyboys'', Souvenir Press. ISBN 0-285-63668-5</ref> However, while a significant number of Thais perceive kathoeys as belonging to a third gender, including many kathoeys themselves, others see them as either a kind of man or a kind of woman.<ref name="Winter">Winter, Sam (2003). Research and discussion paper: ''Language and identity in transgender: gender wars and the case of the Thai kathoey.'' Paper presented at the Hawaii conference on Social Sciences, Waikiki, June 2003. [http://web.hku.hk/~sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/paper_language_and_identity.htm Article online].</ref> Researcher Sam Winter writes:
<br /><br />
{{cquote|We asked our 190 [kathoeys] to say whether they thought of themselves as men, women, ''sao praphet song'' ["a second kind of woman"] or ''kathoey''. None thought of themselves as male, and only 11 percent saw themselves as kathoey (i.e. ‘non-male’). By contrast 45 percent thought of themselves as women, with another 36 percent as ''sao praphet song''...&nbsp;Unfortunately we did not include the category ''phet tee sam'' (third sex/gender); conceivably if we had done so there may have been many respondents who would have chosen that term... Around 50 percent [of non-transgender Thais] see them as males with the mistaken minds, but the other half see them as either women born into the wrong body (around 15 percent) or as a third sex/gender (35 percent)."<ref name="Winter" />}}
 
In 2004, the [[Chiang Mai]] Technology School allocated a separate restroom for kathoeys, with an intertwined male and female symbol on the door. The 15 kathoey students are required to wear male clothing at school but are allowed to sport feminine hairdos. The restroom features four stalls, but no urinals.<ref>''Transvestites Get Their Own School Bathroom'', [[Associated Press]], June 22, 2004.</ref>
 
===The Western world===
In the Italian city of Naples there exists a third gender, the so called femminielli (little women). Their position in society bears much resemblance to that of the Indian hijras.
 
====Third Gender and the concept of Homosexuality====
 
In the entire history of humankind, before the concept of 'homosexuality' was invented in the West in 1860s, male sexuality was not seen in terms of whether it was towards men or women, but whether it was 'masculine' or 'feminine.' The masculine males who were considered 'men' could penetrate men, and have other non-penetrative sex with men, without losing their manhood, or without being considered different. In fact, whether or not it was persecuted, sexuality between men was considered a universal male quality (it still is, in most non-Westernized societies). Even if in most societies it was considered a vice that men were supposed to keep away from, yet it was well accepted that all men were prone to be 'enticed' by this, and not a 'distinct category of males' as the modern Western concept of homosexuality assumes. It were the feminine gendered males or the third genders, especially those who sought receptive sex with men, that were seen as a separate category, a separate gender. In societies, that had left no formal or acknowledged spaces for men to be sexual with men, did allow the third genders to have sex with men, as this was seen as sex between 'opposite' genders, not the same. Yet, the actual social stigma of being deprived of manhood was not attached with men's desire for men, but with the third genders, and with receptive anal sex, which was supposed to be a quality of the third genders.
 
The third gender had been extremely persecuted in the West, and like sex between men, it had also gone underground in the entire medieval period. It reemerged in the late 1700s in Europe and started thriving again as a subculture of 'third gender' males who sought receptive sex from men.
 
However, due to the special conditions prevalent in the West at that time, resulting from a stauch Christian past and an emerging 'scientific' worldview, the third genders gradually, also started to see themselves as 'men who like men,' in a time when the 'actual' men were highly secretive about their sexual inclinations towards men. And this gradually, gave birth to the concept of 'homosexuals' as the new term for 'third gender' in the 1860s. Gradually, as the term got scientific and cultural validity from the West, the concept of third gender was gradually abandoned for the concept of 'homosexuality' and 'sexual orientation.' However, this had an extremely negative repercussion on the actual men's sexual liasions for men, who were now forced to adopt a heterosexual identity in order to save their manhood.
 
[[Image:Thirdsex bookcover 1959.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Cover to 1959 [[lesbian pulp fiction]] novel "The Third Sex", by Artemis Smith.]]Some writers suggest that a third gender emerged around 1700 AD in [[England]]: the male [[sodomite]].<ref name="Trumbach">Trumbach, Randolph. (1998) ''Sex and the Gender Revolution. Volume 1: Heterosexuality and the Third Gender in Enlightenment London''. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998. (Chicago Series on Sexuality, History & Society)</ref> According to these writers, this was marked by the emergence of a [[subculture]] of [[effeminate]] males and their meeting places ([[molly house]]s), as well as a marked increase in hostility towards effeminate and/or [[homosexual]] males. People described themselves as members of a third sex in Europe from at least the 1860s with the writings of [[Karl Heinrich Ulrichs]]<ref>Kennedy, Hubert C. (1980) ''The "third sex" theory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs'', Journal of Homosexuality. 1980-1981 Fall-Winter; 6(1-2): pp. 103-1</ref> and continuing in the late nineteenth century with [[Magnus Hirschfeld]],<ref>[[Magnus Hirschfeld|Hirschfeld, Magnus]], 1904. ''Berlins Drittes Geschlecht'' ("Berlin's Third Sex")</ref> [[John Addington Symonds]],<ref>[[Havelock Ellis|Ellis, Havelock]] and [[John Addington Symonds|Symonds, J. A.]], 1897. ''Sexual Inversion''.</ref> [[Edward Carpenter]],<ref>[[Edward Carpenter|Carpenter, Edward]], 1908. ''[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/carpenter-is.html The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women]''.</ref> Aimée Duc<ref>Duc, Aimée, 1901. ''Sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte Geschlecht'' ("Are These Women? Novel about the Third Sex")</ref> and others. These writers described themselves and those like them as being of an "inverted" or "intermediate" sex and experiencing homosexual desire, and their writing argued for social acceptance of such sexual intermediates.<ref>Jones, James W. (1990). ''"We of the third sex” : homo Representations of Homosexuality in Wilhelmine Germany.'' (German Life and Civilization v. 7) New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-8204-1209-0</ref> Many cited precedents from classical Greek and Sanskrit literature (see below).
 
In [[Wilhelmine Germany]], the terms ''drittes Geschlecht'' ("third sex") and ''Mannweib'' ("man-woman") were also used to describe [[feminist]]s — both by their opponents<ref>Wright, Barbara D. (1897). ''<nowiki>'New Man,'</nowiki> Eternal Woman: Expressionist Responses to German Feminism,'' The German Quarterly, 60, no. 4, (Autumn 1987): 594.</ref> and sometimes by feminists themselves. In the 1899 novel ''Das dritte Geschlecht'' (''The Third Sex'') by Ernst Ludwig von Wolzogen, feminists are portrayed as "neuters" with external female characteristics accompanied by a crippled male [[Psyche (psychology)|psyche]].
 
{{Sexual orientation}}Throughout much of the twentieth century, the term "third sex" was a popular descriptor for homosexuals and gender nonconformists, but after [[Gay Liberation]] of the 1970s and a growing separation of the concepts of [[sexual orientation]] and [[gender identity]], the term fell out of favor among [[LGBT communities]] and the wider public. With the renewed exploration of gender that feminism, the modern [[transgender]] movement and [[queer theory]] has fostered, some in the contemporary West have begun to describe themselves as a third sex again.<ref>Sell, Ingrid. (2001). ''Not man, not woman: Psychospiritual characteristics of a Western third gender.'' Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 33 (1), pp. 16-36. (Complete doctoral dissertation: Sell, Ingrid. (2001). ''Third gender: A qualitative study of the experience of individuals who identify as being neither man nor woman.'' (Doctoral Dissertation, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology). UMI No. 3011299.)</ref> One well known social movement of male-bodied people that identify as neither men nor women are the [[Radical Faeries]]. Other modern identities that cover similar ground include [[pangender]], [[bigender]], [[genderqueer]], [[androgyne]], [[intergender]], "other gender" and "differently gendered".
 
The term [[transgender]], which often refers to those who change their gender, is increasingly being used to signify a gendered subjectivity that is neither male nor female — one recent example is on a form for the [[Harvard Business School]], which has three gender options — male, female, and transgender.<ref>Harvard Business School Profile [http://inq.applyyourself.com/?id=hbs&pid=6 form online].</ref>
 
===Indigenous cultures of North America===
{{main|Two-Spirit}}
 
Also very much associated with multiple genders are the indigenous cultures of [[North America]],<ref>See, for example, Hollimon, S. E. (1997), ''The third-gender in native California: two-spirit undertakers among the Chumash and their neighbors.'' In Women in Prehistory, C. Claassen and R. Joyce (Ed.). Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 173 - 188.</ref> who often contain social gender categories that are collectively known as [[Two-Spirit]]. Individual examples include the [[Winkte]] of [[Lakota people|Lakota]] culture, the ninauposkitzipxpe ("manly-hearted woman") of the North Peigan ([[Blackfeet|Blackfoot]]) community, and the [[Zapotec peoples|Zapotec]] [[Muxe]]. Various scholars have debated the nature of such categories, as well as the definition of the term "third gender". Different researchers may characterise a Two-Spirit person as a gender-crosser, a mixed gender, an intermediate gender, or distinct third and fourth genders that are not dependent on male and female as primary categories. Those (such as Will Roscoe) who have argued for the latter interpretation also argue that mixed-, intermediate-, cross- or non-gendered social roles should not be understood as truly representing a third gender. Anthropologist Jean-Guy Goulet (1996) reviews the literature:
<br /><br />
{{cquote|To summarize: 'berdache' may signify a category of male human beings who fill an established social status other than that of man or woman (Blackwood 1984; Williams 1986: 1993); a category of male and female human beings who behave and dress 'like a member of the opposite sex' (Angelino & Shedd 1955; Jacobs 1968; and Whitehead 1981); or categories of male and female human beings who occupy well established third or fourth genders (Callender & Kochems 1983a; 1983b; Jacobs 1983; Roscoe 1987; 1994). Scheffler (1991: 378), however, sees [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]] cases of 'berdache' and '[[Amazons|amazon]]' as 'situations in which some men (less often women) are permitted to act, in some degree, as though they were women (or men), and may be spoken of as though they were women (or men), or as anomalous 'he-she' or 'she-he'.' In Scheffler's view (1991: 378), '[e]thnographic data cited by Kessler and McKenna (1978), and more recently by Williams (1986), provide definitive evidence that such persons were not regarded as having somehow moved from one sex (or in Kessler and McKenna's terms, gender) category to the other, but were only metaphorically "women" (or "men")'. In other words, according to Scheffler, we need not imagine a multiple gender system. Individuals who appeared in the dress and/or occupation of the opposite sex were only metaphorically spoken of as members of that sex or gender."<ref>Goulet, Jean-Guy A. (2006). ''The 'berdache'/'two-spirit': a comparison of anthropological and native constructions of gendered identities among the Northern Athapaskans.'' Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2.n4 (December 1996): 683(19).<br>*The works cited in this overview are:<br>Angelino, H. & C. Shedd, (1955). ''A note on Berdache.'' Am. Anthrop. 57, pp. 121-6.<br>Blackwood, E. (1984). ''Sexuality and gender in certain Native American tribes: the case of cross-gender females.'' Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 10, pp. 27-4<br>Callender, C. & L.M. Kochems (1983a). ''The North American berdache.'' [[Current Anthropology]] 24, 443-56.<br>— (1983b). ''Reply''. Curr. Anthrop. 24, 464-7.<br>Jacobs, S.-E. (1968). ''Berdache: a brief review of the literature.'' Colorado Anthrop. 1, pp. 25-40.<br>— (1983). ''Comment.'' Curr. Anthrop. 24, 462.<br>Kessler, S. & W. McKenna (1978). ''Gender: an ethnomethodological approach.'' New York: Wiley.<br>Roscoe, W. (1987). ''Bibliography of berdache and alternative gender roles among North American Indians.'' [[Journal of Homosexuality]]. 14, 81-171.<br>— (1994). ''How to become a berdache: toward a unified analysis of gender diversity.'' In "Third sex, third gender: beyond sexual dimorphism in culture and history" (ed.) G. Herdt. New York: Zone Books.<br>Scheffler, H.W. (1991). ''Sexism and naturalism in the study of kinship.'' In "Gender at the crossroads of knowledge: feminist anthropology in the postmodern era" (ed.) M. di Leonardo. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.<br>Whitehead, H. (1981). ''The bow and the burden strap: a new look at institutionalized homosexuality in Native North America.'' In "Sexual meanings: the cultural construction of gender and sexuality", (eds) S.B. Ortner & H. Whitehead. New York: Cambridge University<br>Williams, W.L. (1986). ''The spirit and the flesh: sexual diversity in American Indian culture.'' Boston: Beacon Press.</ref>}}
 
The term "berdache" is seen as very offensive by many Two-Spirit and Native people because of its historical roots; It was first applied by European settlers as a derogative term, meaning a submissive, effeminate man.<ref>[http://www.bcholmes.org/tg/berdache.html B.C. on Gender: The Berdache Tradition<!--Bot-generated title-->]</ref> The term "Two-Spirit" was created in 1990 as an [[English language|English]] word to convey an identity already recognized by many Nations, and is usually the preferred and most respectful term.
 
Steven P. Sparacino is also an advocate of "third sex". He believes that "I am not a man nor a woman, but a wonderful combination".
 
===Other===
The following gender categories have also been described as a third gender:
 
:'''Middle East:'''
* [[Oman]]: ''[[Xanith]]'' or ''khanith''.<ref>Wikan, Unni (1991). ''The Xanith: a third gender role? in Behind the veil in Arabia: women in Oman.'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press</ref>
 
:'''Asia-Pacific:'''
* [[Polynesia]]: ''[[Fa'afafine]]'' ([[Samoa]]),<ref>Sua'aIi'i, Tamasailau, "[[Samoa]]ns and [[Gender]]: Some Reflections on Male, Female and Fa'afafine Gender Identities", in: ''Tangata O Te Moana Nui: The Evolving Identities of Pacific Peoples in [[Aotearoa]]/[[New Zealand]]'', Palmerston North (NZ): Dunmore Press, 2001, ISBN 0-86469-369-9</ref> ''[[fakaleiti]]'' ([[Tonga]]), ''mahu wahine'' ([[Hawaii]]), ''mahu vahine'' ([[Tahiti]]), ''whakawahine'' ([[New Zealand Māori]]) and ''akava'ine'' ([[Cook Islands Māori]]).<ref>''National fono for Pacific “third sex” communities'', media release from New Zealand Aids Foundation, August 5, 2005. [http://www.nzaf.org.nz/articles.php?id=472 Article online].</ref>
 
* [[Indonesia]]: ''[[Waria]]''.<ref>Oostvogels, Robert (1995). ''The Waria of Indonesia: A Traditional Third Gender Role'', in Herdt (ed.), op cit.</ref> Additionally, the [[Bugis]] culture of [[Sulawesi]] has been described as having three sexes (male, female and [[intersex]]) as well as five genders with distinct social roles.<ref name="Graham">Graham, Sharyn (2001), [http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit66/bissu2.htm Sulawesi's fifth gender], Inside Indonesia, April-June 2001.</ref>
* In the [[Philippines]], a number of local sex/gender identities are commonly referred to as a third sex in popular discourse, as well as by some academic studies. Local terms for these identities (which are considered derogatory by some) include ''bakla'' ([[Tagalog language|Tagalog]]), ''bayot'' ([[Cebuano language|Cebuano]]), ''agi'' ([[Ilonggo]]), ''bantut'' ([[Tausug language|Tausug]]), ''binabae'', ''bading'' — all of which refer to effeminate 'gay' men/transwomen. [[Gender variance|Gender variant]] females may be called ''lakin-on'' or [[tomboy]].<ref>Nanda, Serena (1999). ''Gender Diversity: Crosscultural Variations''. Waveland Pr Inc, 7 October 1999. ISBN 1-57766-074-9</ref>
 
:'''Europe:'''
* The [[Balkans]]: [[Sworn virgin]]s,<ref name="Young" /> females who work and dress as men and inhabit some men-only spaces, but do not marry.
* 18th century [[England]]: [[Molly house|Mollies]]<ref name="Trumbach"/>
 
:'''Africa:'''
* Southern [[Ethiopia]]: ''Ashtime'' of <!--[[Maale (ethnic group)|-->Maale culture<ref>Donham, Donald (1990). ''History, Power, Ideology. Central Issues in Marxism and Anthropology'', Cambridge</ref>
* [[Kenya]]: ''Mashoga'' of [[Swahili language|Swahili]]-speaking areas of the Kenyan coast, particularly [[Mombasa]]
* [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]]: ''Mangaiko'' among the Mbo people.<ref>Towles, Joseph A. (1993). ''Nkumbi initiation: Ritual and structure among the Mbo of Zaire'', Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren, Belgique)</ref>
 
:'''Latin America and the Caribbean:'''
* ''[[Travesti]]s'' of [[Latin America]] have been described as a third gender, although not all see themselves this way. [[Don Kulick]] described the gendered world of travestis in urban [[Brazil]] as having has two categories: "men" and "not men", with women, homosexuals and travestis belonging to the latter category.<ref>Kulick, Don (1998). ''Travesti: Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes'' (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998)</ref>
* [[Dominican republic]]: ''[[Guevedoche]]'', intersex girls who become boys at puberty, due to [[5-alpha-reductase deficiency]].<ref>Nataf, Zachary I (1998). ''Whatever I feel...'', [[New Internationalist]], Issue 300 / April 1998. [http://www.newint.org/issue300/Copy%20of%20contents.html Article online].</ref> The same phenomenon is known as ''kwolu-aatmwol'' in the "Sambia" community in the eastern highlands of [[Papua New Guinea]].<ref>Herdt, Gilbert. (1993). ''Mistaken Sex: Culture, Biology and the Third Sex in New Guinea,'' in Herdt, (1999). "Sambia Sexual Culture: Essays from the Field." Chicago. 243–64.</ref>
 
==Third gender in history==
===Mesopotamia===
[[Image:Sumerian creation myth.jpg|thumb|upright|Stone tablet from 2nd millennium BC Sumer containing a myth about the creation of a type of human who is neither man nor woman.]]
In [[Mesopotamian mythology]], among the earliest written records of humanity, there are references to types of people who are not men and not women. In a [[Sumer]]ian [[creation myth]] found on a stone tablet from the [[second millennium BC]], the goddess [[Ninmah]] fashions a being "with no male organ and no female organ", for whom [[Enki]] finds a position in society: "to stand before the king". In the [[Akkad]]ian myth of [[Atra-Hasis]] (ca. 1700 BC), Enki instructs [[Nintu]], the goddess of birth, to establish a “third category among the people” in addition to men and women, that includes demons who steal infants, women who are unable to give birth, and priestesses who are prohibited from bearing children.<ref>Murray, Stephen O., and Roscoe, Will (1997). ''Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature.'' New York: New York University Press.</ref> In [[Babylonia]], [[Sumer]] and [[Assyria]], certain types of individuals who performed religious duties in the service of [[Inanna]]/[[Ishtar]] have been described as a third gender.<ref>Roscoe, Will (1996). ''Priests of the Goddess: Gender Transgression in Ancient Religion''. History of Religions 35(3) (1996): 295-330.<br>*Roscoe identifies these temple staff by the names ''kalû'', ''kurgarrû'', and ''assinnu''.</ref> They worked as [[sacred prostitute]]s or [[Hierodule]]s, performed ecstatic dance, music and plays, wore masks and had gender characteristics of both women and men.<ref>Nissinen, Martti (1998). ''Homoeroticism in the Biblical World'', Translated by Kirsi Stjedna. Fortress Press (November 1998) p. 30. ISBN 0-8006-2985-X<br>See also: Maul, S. M. (1992). ''Kurgarrû und assinnu und ihr Stand in der babylonischen Gesellschaft.'' Pp. 159-71 in Aussenseiter und Randgruppen. Konstanze Althistorische Vorträge und Forschungern 32. Edited by V. Haas. Konstanz: Universitätsverlag.</ref> In Sumer, they were given the [[Cuneiform script|cuneiform]] names of ''ur.sal'' ("dog/man-woman") and ''kur.gar.ra'' (also described as a man-woman).<ref>Nissinen (1998) p. 28, 32.</ref> Modern scholars, struggling to describe them using contemporary sex/gender categories, have variously described them as "living as women", or used descriptors such as hermaphrodites, eunuchs, homosexuals, transvestites, effeminate males and a range of other terms and phrases.<ref>Leick, Gwendolyn (1994). ''Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature''. Routledge. New York.<br>*Leick's account: [[Sumerian language|Sumerian]]: ''sag-ur-sag'', ''pilpili'' and ''kurgarra''; and [[Akkadian language|Assyrian]]: ''assinnu''. Leick describes them as "hermaphrodites, homosexual transvestites, and other, castrated individuals".<br>Burns, John Barclay (2000). ''Devotee or Deviate: The “Dog” (keleb) in Ancient Israel as a Symbol of Male Passivity and Perversion''. Journal of Religion & Society Volume 2 (2000). ISSN 1522-5658<br>*Burns defines the ''assinnu'' as "a member of Ishtar’s cultic staff with whom, it seems, a man might have intercourse, whose masculinity had become femininity" and who "lacked libido, either from a natural defect or castration". He described the ''kulu'u'' as effeminate and the ''kurgarru'' as [[transvestism|transvestite]]. In addition, he defines another kind of gender-variant prostitute, ''sinnisānu'', as (literally) “woman-like.”</ref>
 
===Egypt===
Inscribed pottery shards from the [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt]] (2000-1800 BCE), found near ancient [[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]] (now [[Luxor]], [[Egypt]]), list three human genders: ''tai'' (male), ''sḫt'' ("sekhet") and ''hmt'' (female).<ref>Sethe, Kurt, (1926), ''Die Aechtung feindlicher Fürsten, Völker und Dinge auf altägyptischen Tongefäßscherben des mittleren Reiches,'' in: Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, 1926, p. 61.</ref> ''Sḫt'' is often translated as "eunuch", although there is little evidence that such individuals were castrated.<ref>[http://www.well.com/user/aquarius/egypt.htm The Third Gender in Ancient Egypt], Faris Malik. (web site)</ref>
 
===Indic culture===
[[Image:Ardhanari.jpg|thumb|upright|The Hindu god [[Shiva]] is often represented as [[Ardhanarisvara]], with a dual male and female nature; Typically, Ardhanarisvara's right side is male, and left side female. This sculpture is from the [[Elephanta Caves]] near [[Mumbai]].]]
References to a third sex can be found throughout the various texts of India's three ancient spiritual traditions — [[Hinduism]],<ref>Wilhelm, Amara Das (2004). ''Tritiya Prakriti (People of the Third Sex): Understanding Homosexuality, Transgender Identity and Intersex Conditions through Hinduism'' (XLibris Corporation, 2004).</ref> [[Jainism]]<ref>Zwilling, Leonard and Sweet, Michael (1996). ''Like a City Ablaze: The Third Sex and the Creation of Sexuality in Jain Religious Literature,'' Journal of the History of Sexuality, 6 (3), pp.359-384</ref> and [[Buddhism]]<ref>Jackson, Peter A. (1996). ''Non-normative Sex/Gender Categories in the Theravada Buddhist Scriptures'', Australian Humanities Review, April 1996. [http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/AHR/archive/Issue-April-1996/Jacksonref.html Full text.]</ref> — and it can be inferred that [[Vedic culture]] recognised three genders. The [[Vedas]] (c. 1500 BC - 500 BC) describe individuals as belonging to one of three separate categories, according to one's nature or [[prakrti]]. These are also spelled out in the [[Kama Sutra]] (c. 4th century AD) and elsewhere as ''pums-prakrti'' (male-nature), ''stri-prakrti'' (female-nature), and ''tritiya-prakrti'' (third-nature).<ref>Alternate transliteration: ''trhytîyâ prakrhyti''</ref> Various texts suggest that third sex individuals were well known in premodern India, and included male-bodied or female-bodied<ref>Historian [[Walter Penrose]] wrote that "distinct social and economic roles once existed for women thought to belong to a third gender. Hidden in history, these women dressed in men's clothing, served as porters and personal bodyguards to kings and queens, and even took an active role in sex with women." Penrose, Walter (2001). ''Hidden in History: Female Homoeroticism and Women of a "Third Nature" in the South Asian Past'', Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.1 (2001), p.4</ref> people as well as [[intersex]]uals, and that they can often be recognised from childhood.
 
A third sex is also discussed in ancient [[Hindu law]], medicine, [[linguistics]] and [[astrology]]. The foundational work of Hindu law, the [[Manu Smriti]] (c. 200 BC - 200 AD) explains the biological origins of the three sexes: "A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female; if both are equal, a third-sex child or boy and girl twins are produced; if either are weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of conception results."<ref>[[Manu Smriti]], 3.49. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/manu/manu03.htm Text online].</ref> Indian linguist [[Patañjali]]'s<ref>Not to be confused with the [[Patañjali]] who was the author of the ''[[Yoga sutras]]''.</ref> work on [[Sanskrit]] grammar, the [[Mahābhāṣya]] (c. 200 BC), states that Sanskrit's three [[grammatical genders]] are derived from three natural genders. The earliest [[Tamil language|Tamil]] grammar, the [[Tolkappiyam]] (3rd century BC) also refers to hermaphrodites as a third "neuter" gender (in addition to a feminine category of unmasculine males). In [[Vedic astrology]], the nine planets are each assigned to one of the three genders; the third gender, ''tritiya-prakrti'', is associated with [[Mercury (planet)|Mercury]], [[Saturn]] and (in particular) [[Ketu (mythology)|Ketu]]. In the [[Puranas]], there are also references to three kinds of [[deva (Hinduism)|deva]]s of music and dance: [[apsaras]] (female), [[gandharva]]s (male) and [[kinnar]]s (neuter).
 
The two great [[Sanskrit]] [[epic poem]]s, the [[Ramayana]] and the [[Mahabharata]],<ref>The hero [[Arjuna]] takes a "vow of eunuchism" to live as the third sex for a year: "O lord of the Earth, I will declare myself as one of the neuter sex. O monarch, it is, indeed difficult to hide the marks of the bowstring on my arms. I will, however, cover both my [[Cicatrization|cicatrized]] arms with bangles. Wearing brilliant rings on my ears and [[conch]]-bangles on my wrists and causing a braid to hang down from my head, I shall, O king, appear as one of the third sex, Vrihannala by name. And living as a female I shall (always) entertain the king and the inmates of the inner apartments by reciting stories. And, O king, I shall also instruct the women of Virata's palace in singing and delightful modes of dancing and in musical instruments of diverse kinds. And I shall also recite the various excellent acts of men..." [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/15475 Mahabharata (Virata-parva)], Translated by Ganguli, Kisari Mohan. [[Project Gutenberg]].</ref> also indicate the existence of a third gender in ancient Indic society. Some versions of [[Ramayana]] tell that in one part of the story, the hero [[Rama]] heads into exile in the forest. Halfway there, he discovers that most of the people of his home town [[Ayodhya]] were following him. He told them, "Men and women, turn back," and with that, those who were "neither men nor women" did not know what to do, so they stayed there. When Rama returned to from exile years later, he discovered them still there and blessed them, saying that there will be a day when they will rule the world.
 
In the Buddhist [[Vinaya]], codified in its present form around the 2nd century BC and said to be handed down by oral tradition from [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]] himself, there are four main sex/gender categories: males, females, ''ubhatobyanjanaka'' (people of a dual sexual nature) and ''pandaka'' (people of various non-normative sexual natures, perhaps originally denoting a deficiency in male sexual capacity).<ref>Jackson, Peter A. (1996). [[Ibid]].</ref> As the Vinaya tradition developed, the term ''pandaka'' came to refer to a broad third sex category which encompassed intersex, male and female bodied people with physical and/or behavioural attributes that were considered inconsistent with the sexual ideal of man and woman.<ref>Gyatso, Janet (2003). ''One Plus One Makes Three: Buddhist Gender Conceptions and the Law of the Non-Excluded Middle,'' History of Religions. 2003, no. 2. University of Chicago press.</ref>
 
===Mediterranean culture===
[[Image:Hermaphroditus Louvre face.jpg|thumb|right|2nd century Roman copy of a Greek sculpture. The figure is [[Hermaphroditus]], from which the word [[hermaphrodite]] is derived.]]
In [[Plato]]'s ''[[Symposium (Plato)|Symposium]]'', written around the [[4th century BC]], [[Aristophanes]] relates a [[creation myth]] involving three original sexes: female, male and androgynous. They are split in half by [[Zeus]], producing four different contemporary sex/gender types which seek to be reunited with their lost other half; in this account, the modern [[heterosexual]] man and woman descend from the original androgynous sex. Other [[creation myth]]s around the world share a belief in three original sexes, such as those from northern Thailand.<ref>Jackson, Peter A. (1995) ''Kathoey: The third sex.'' In Jackson, P., "Dear Uncle Go: Male homosexuality in Thailand." Bangkok, Thailand: Bua Luang Books<br>See also: Peltier, Anatole-Roger (1991). ''Pathamamulamuli: The Origin of the World in the Lan Na Tradition''. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books. The Yuan creation myth in the book is from Pathamamulamuli, an antique Buddhist palmleaf manuscript. Its translator, Anatole-Roger Peltier, believes that this story is based on an oral tradition which is over five hundred years old. [http://web.archive.org/web/20050205031728/http://home.att.net/~leela2/creation_myth.htm Text online].</ref>
 
Many have interpreted the "[[eunuch]]s" of the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean world as a third gender that inhabited a [[liminality|liminal]] space between women and men, understood in their societies as somehow neither or both.<ref>S. Tougher, ed., (2001) ''Eunuchs in Antiquity and Beyond'' (London: Duckworth Publishing, 2001).<br>Ringrose, Kathryn M. (2003). ''The Perfect Servant: Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium.'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003.</ref> In the [[Historia Augusta]], the eunuch body is described as a ''tertium genus hominum'' (a third human gender),<ref>[[Historia Augusta]], ''[[Severus Alexander]]'' xxiii.7.</ref> and in 77 BC, a eunuch named Genucius was prevented from claiming goods left to him in a [[will (law)|will]], on the grounds that he had voluntarily mutilated himself (''amputatis sui ipsius'') and was neither a woman or a man (''neque virorum neque mulierum numero'').<ref>[[Valerius Maximus]], 7.7.6).</ref> Several scholars have argued that the eunuchs in the [[Hebrew Bible]] and the [[New Testament]] were understood in their time to belong to a third gender, rather than the more recent interpretations of a kind of emasculated man, or a metaphor for [[chastity]].<ref>Hester, J. David (2005). ''Eunuchs and the Postgender Jesus: Matthew 19:12 and Transgressive Sexualities''. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Vol. 28, No. 1, 13-40 (2005)</ref> The first Christian theologian, [[Tertullian]], wrote that [[Jesus]] himself was a eunuch (c. 200 AD).<ref>Tertullian, On Monogamy, 3: “...He stands before you, if you are willing to copy him, as a voluntary ''spado'' (eunuch) in the flesh.” And elsewhere: "The Lord Himself opened the kingdom of heaven to eunuchs and He Himself lived as a eunuch. The [[Paul of Tarsus|apostle [Paul]]] also, following His example, made himself a eunuch..."</ref> Tertullian also noted the existence of a third sex (''tertium sexus'') among heathens: "a third race in sex... made of male and female in one."<ref>[[Tertullian]], ''Ad nationes'', 1.20.4. [http://earlychristianwritings.com/text/tertullian06.html Text online].</ref> He may have been referring to the [[Galli]], "eunuch" devotees of the [[Phrygian]] goddess [[Cybele]], who were described as belonging to a third sex by several [[ancient Rome|Roman]] writers.<ref>e.g. "Both sexes are displeasing to her holiness, so [the gallus] keeps a middle gender (''medium genus'') between the others." [[Prudentius]], Peristephanon, 10.1071-3</ref>
 
===The Americas===
The ancient [[Maya civilization]] may have recognised a third gender, according to historian Matthew Looper. Looper notes the androgynous [[Maize]] Deity and masculine [[Lunar deity|Moon goddess]] of [[Maya mythology]], and iconography and inscriptions where rulers embody or impersonate these deities. He suggests that the third gender could also include [[two-spirit]] individuals with special roles such as healers or [[divination|diviners]].<ref>Looper, Matthew G. (2001). ''Ancient Maya Women-Men (and Men-Women): Classic Rulers and the Third Gender'', In: "Ancient Maya Women", ed. Traci Ardren. Walnut Creek, California: Alta Mira, 2001.</ref>
 
Anthropologist and archaeologist Miranda Stockett notes that several writers have felt the need to move beyond a two-gender framework when discussing prehispanic cultures across [[mesoamerica]],<ref>Stockett, Miranda K. ( 2005). ''On the importance of difference: re-envisioning sex and gender in ancient Mesoamerica'', World Archaeology, Routledge, Volume 37, Number 4 / December 2005. pp. 566 - 578<br>In addition to Looper (above) and Joyce (below), Stockett cites:<br>Geller, P. (2004). ''Skeletal analysis and theoretical complications.'' Paper presented at Que(e)rying Archaeology: The Fifteenth Anniversary Gender Conference, Chacmool Archaeology Conference, University of Calgary, Calgary.<br>Joyce, R. (1998). ''Performing the body in pre-Hispanic Central American.'' RES, 33: 147–65.<br>Lopez-Austin, A. (1988). ''The Human Body and Ideology: Concepts of Ancient Nahuas'' (trans T.O. de Montellano and B.O. de Montellano). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.</ref> and concludes that the [[Olmec]], [[Aztec]] and [[Maya peoples]] understood "more than two kinds of bodies and more than two kinds of gender." Anthropologist Rosemary Joyce agrees, writing that "gender was a fluid potential, not a fixed category, before the Spaniards came to Mesoamerica. Childhood training and ritual shaped, but did not set, adult gender, which could encompass third genders and alternative sexualities as well as "male" and "female." At the height of the Classic period, Maya rulers presented themselves as embodying the entire range of gender possibilities, from male through female, by wearing blended costumes and playing male and female roles in state ceremonies." Joyce notes that many figures of mesoamerican art are depicted with male genitalia and female breasts, while she suggests that other figures in which chests and waists are exposed but no sexual characteristics (primary or secondary) are marked may represent a third sex, ambiguous gender or androgyny.<ref>Joyce, Rosemary A. (2000). ''Gender and Power in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.'' Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-74065-5</ref>
 
====[[Inca]]====
Andean Studies scholar Michael Horswell writes that third-gendered ritual attendants to ''chuqui chinchay'', a [[jaguar]] deity in [[Incan mythology]], were "vital actors in Andean ceremonies" prior to [[Spanish Empire|Spanish colonisation]]. Horswell elaborates: "These ''quariwarmi'' (men-women) [[shaman]]s mediated between the symmetrically dualistic spheres of Andean cosmology and daily life by performing rituals that at times required same-sex erotic practices. Their transvested attire served as a visible sign of a third space that negotiated between the masculine and the feminine, the present and the past, the living and the dead. Their shamanic presence invoked the androgynous creative force often represented in Andean mythology."<ref>Horswell, Michael J. (2006). ''Transculturating Tropes of Sexuality, ''Tinkuy'', and Third Gender in the Andes'', introduction to "Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture". ISBN 0-292-71267-7. [http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exhordec.html Article online].</ref> [[Richard Trexler]] gives an early Spanish account of religious 'third gender' figures from the [[Inca empire]] in his 1995 book "Sex and Conquest":
 
{{cquote|It is true that, as a general thing among the mountaineers and the coastal dwellers [Yungas], the devil has introduced his vice under the pretense of sanctity. And in each important temple or house of worship, they have a man or two, or more, depending on the idol, who go dressed in women's attire from the time they are children, and speak like them, and in manner, dress, and everything else they imitate women. With them especially the chiefs and headmen have carnal, foul intercourse on feast days and holidays, almost like a religious rite and ceremony.<ref>Trexler, Richard C. (1995). ''Sex and Conquest.'' Cornell University Press: Ithaca. p. 107</ref>}}
 
====[[Illiniwek]]====
The natives of modern [[Illinois]] decided the gender of their members based on their childhood behavior. If a genetic male child used female tools like a spade or ax instead of a bow, they considered them berdaches.<ref>Pierre Liette. Memoir of Pierre Liette on the Illinois Country as quoted in Gender Outlaw by Kate Bornsten</ref>
 
==Third sex in art and literature==
[[Image:Nuremberg chronicles - Strange People - Androgyn (XIIr).jpg|thumb|right|Illustration from the [[Nuremberg Chronicle]], by [[Hartmann Schedel]] (1440-1514)]]
*In the 1980s [[science fiction]] book trilogy ''[[Xenogenesis]]'', by [[Octavia Butler]], the extraterrestrial race has three sexes: male, female, and [[Ooloi]]. They also have sexual relationships with humans and interbreed with them.
*In the world of Carolyn Ives Gilman's 1998 novel ''[[Halfway Human]]'', all children are born with indeterminate sex, and develop into male, female, or "bland" in adolescence. Blands are a neuter category lacking sexual characteristics, who are disparaged and treated as servants — the "halfway humans" of the book's title.
*Literary critic Michael Maiwald identifies a "third-sex ideal" in the one of the first [[African-American]] bestsellers, [[Claude McKay]]'s ''Home to Harlem'' (1928).<ref>Maiwald, Michael (2002). ''Race, Capitalism, and the Third-Sex Ideal: Claude McKay's Home to Harlem and the Legacy of Edward Carpenter'', MFS [[Modern Fiction Studies]], Volume 48, Number 4, Winter 2002</ref>
*''The Third Sex'', a 1959 [[lesbian pulp fiction]] novel by Artemis Smith.
*''The Third Sex'', a 1934 film directed by Richard C. Kahn, based on a novel by [[Radcliffe Hall]], ''[[The Well of Loneliness]]''.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0053353/ The Third Sex (1934)<!--Bot-generated title-->]</ref>
*''Anders als du und ich'' ("Different From You and I"), a 1957 film directed by [[Veit Harlan]], was also known under the titles ''Bewildered Youth'' (USA) and ''The Third Sex''.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0050128/ Anders als du und ich (1957)<!--Bot-generated title-->]</ref>
*''Mikaël'', a 1924 film directed by [[Carl Theodor Dreyer]] was also released as ''Chained: The Story of the Third Sex'' in the USA.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0015136/ Michael (1924)<!--Bot-generated title-->]</ref>
*In [[David Lindsay (novelist)|David Lindsay]]'s ''[[A Voyage to Arcturus]]'' there is a type of being called ''phaen'', a third gender which is attracted neither to men nor women but to "Faceny" (their name for Shaping or Crystalman, the [[Demiurge]]). The appropriate pronouns are ''ae'' and ''aer''.
*In ''[[Imajica]]'', one of the characters, Pie 'oh' Pah, is called a ''mystif'', and has the characteristics of a third sex that is neither male nor female but could either fertilize or bear children. Pie marries the male character Gentle, but says [[ze (pronoun)|ze]] prefers not to be called his wife.
*In [[Kurt Vonnegut]]'s ''[[Slaughterhouse-Five]]'' identifies seven human sexes (not genders) required for reproduction including gay men, women over 65, and infants who died before their first birthday. The [[Tralfamadore|Tralfamadorian]] race has five sexes.<ref>Vonnegut, Kurt. (1999). ''Slaughterhouse-five.'' New York: The Dial Press, p145-146. </ref>
*In [[C. S. Lewis]]' ''[[Space Trilogy]]'', the [[solar system]] has seven genders (not sexes) altogether.
*In [[Matt Groening]]'s cartoon series ''[[Futurama]]'', "smizmar" is used as a term for a third sex, the name for the individuals whom inspire the feeling of love (and thus conception, for that species), regardless of genetic relationship, to [[Kif Kroker]]'s species, the Amphibiosians. This is explained in the episode "[[Kif Gets Knocked Up a Notch]]".
*[[Arthur C. Clarke]]'s novel ''[[Rendezvous with Rama]]'' depicts an alien civilization with three genders.
*[[Ursula K. Le Guin]]'s 1969 novel ''[[The Left Hand of Darkness]]'' posits a world called Gethen, on which humans are [[androgynes]], effectively neuter 12/13 of the time, and for up to two days per month are said to be "in Kemmer," that is, openly available to enter either male or female state as per [[pheremone|pheromonal]] contact with a potential mate.
*''[[Distress (novel)|Distress]]'' (1995) by [[Greg Egan]] is a widely known for its postulation of not just one but five distinct new genders.
*''[[Middlesex (novel)|Middlesex]]'' (2002), the [[Pulitzer Prize]]-winning book by [[Jeffrey Eugenides]]
The musical Hedwig and the Angry Inch includes a song called The Origin of Love which appears to be a lyrical adaptation of Aristophanes' creation myth.
-->
==Δείτε επίσης==
* [[Ανδρόγυνο]]
 
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