Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Πανεπιστήμιο Γέιλ»

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μ (Ο FocalPoint μετακίνησε τη σελίδα Yale University στη Πανεπιστήμιο Γέιλ)
{{Πανεπιστήμιο
{{redirect|Yale}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2012}}
{{Infobox university
|name = Yale University
|latin_name = Universitas Yalensis
|image_name = Yale University Shield 1.svg|150px
|motto = אורים ותמים ([[Hebrew language|Hebrew]]) ([[Urim and Thummim|Urim V'Tumim]])<br />Lux et veritas ([[Latin]])
|mottoeng = Oracle
|mottoeng = Light and truth
|established = 1701
|type = [[Private university|Private]]
|calendar= Semester
|endowment = US$ 19.4 [[1000000000 (number)|billion]] (2011)<ref>{{cite news | title = Investment Return of 21.9% Brings Yale Endowment Value to $19.4 Billion | newspaper = Yale Daily Bulletin| date = September 28, 2011 | url = http://dailybulletin.yale.edu/article.aspx?id=8925 | accessdate =September 28, 2011}}</ref>
|president = [[Rick Levin|Richard C. Levin]]
|faculty = 3,619<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/about/facts.html |title=Yale Facts &#124; Yale |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref>
|students = 11,593
|undergrad = 5,275
|postgrad = 6,318
|city = [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]]
|state = Connecticut
|country = United States
|campus = Urban, {{convert|837|acre|ha}} including Yale Golf Course
|athletics =[[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]] Division I (FCS Football) [[Ivy League]]
|former_names =''Collegiate School'' (1701–1718)<br/>''Yale College'' (1718–1887)
|colors = {{color box|#0F4D92}} [[Yale Blue]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/printer/identity/yaleblue.html |title=Yale University – Identity Guidelines |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
|nickname = [[Bulldog]]s, Elis, Yalies<ref>Fitzgerald, F. Scott (1920), ''This Side of Paradise,'' chapter 2: "half-a-dozen seats were kept from sale and occupied by six of the worst-looking vagabonds that could be hired from the streets... At the moment in the show where Firebrand, the Pirate Chief, pointed at his black flag and said, "I am a Yale graduate – note my Skull and Bones!" – at this very moment the six vagabonds were instructed to rise conspicuously and leave the theatre with looks of deep melancholy and an injured dignity. It was claimed though never proved that on one occasion the hired Elis were swelled by one of the real thing."
</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=34429|title=Five Elis win Rhodes|date=November 20, 2006|accessdate=December 31, 2006|publisher=Yale Daily News|author=Kanya Balakrishna| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071012002502/http://yaledailynews.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=34429| archivedate = October 12, 2007}}, "Four Yale undergraduates and one student from the Graduate School are among the 32 students around the country to receive Rhodes scholarships this year.</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/03_02/fictional.html|title=The Ten Greatest Yalies Who Never Were|month=February | year=2003| accessdate= February 26, 2006|publisher=Yale Alumni Magazine|author=Mark Alden Branch}}
</ref>
|mascot = [[Handsome Dan]]
|affiliations = [[Ivy League]]<br />[[Association of American Universities|AAU]]<br />[[International Alliance of Research Universities|IARU]]
|website = {{URL|http://www.yale.edu/|Yale.edu}}
|logo = [[File:Yale logo.png|80px]]}}
[[File:Charter for Collegiate School later Yale College 1701.jpg|thumb|right|[[Charter]] creating Collegiate School, which became [[Yale College]], October 9, 1701]]
'''Yale University''' is an American [[Private university|private]] [[Ivy League]] [[Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education#Doctorate-granting Universities|research university]] located in [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in the [[Colony of Connecticut]], the university is the [[List of Colonial Colleges|third-oldest institution]] of [[higher education]] in the United States.
 
|όνομα = Πανεπιστήμιο Γέιλ
Incorporated as the "Collegiate School", the institution traces its roots to 17th-century clergymen who sought to establish a college to train [[clergy]] and political leaders for the colony. In 1718, the College was renamed "Yale College" to honor a gift from [[Elihu Yale]], a governor of the [[British East India Company]]. In 1861, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences became the first U.S. school to award the PhD.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/schools/index.html |title=Academic programs &#124; Yale |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref> Yale became a founding member of the [[Association of American Universities]] in 1900. Yale College was transformed, beginning in the 1930s, through the establishment of [[Residential colleges of Yale University|residential colleges]]: [[Yale College#Residential colleges|12]] now exist and two more are planned. Yale employs over 1,100 faculty to teach and advise about 5,300 undergraduate and 6,100 graduate and professional students. Almost all tenured professors teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually.<ref>{{cite web|last=Lu |first=Carmen |url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/university-news/2009/10/15/undergraduate-teaching-requirement-myth/ |title=Undergraduate teaching requirement a myth |publisher=Yale Daily News |date=October 15, 2009 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.yale.edu/admit/visit/facts.htm Yale.edu]{{Dead link|date=September 2009}}</ref>
|εικόνα = [[Αρχείο:Yale University Shield 1.svg|150px|Λογότυπο του Πανεπιστημίου Γέηλ]]
|λογότυπο =Lux Et Veritas<br />Φως και αλήθεια
|ίδρυση = 1701
|τύπος = Ιδιωτικό
|πρύτανης= Richard C. Levin
|προσωπικό = 3,619
|φοιτητές = 11,593
|προπτυχιακοί = 5,275
|μεταπτυχιακοί = 6,318
|πανεπιστημιούπολη = Αστική
|πόλη = New Haven, Connecticut
|χώρα = [[ΗΠΑ|Η.Π.Α.]]
|ιστοσελίδα = [http://www.yale.edu www.yale.edu]
[[Αρχείο:Yale logo.png|80px]]}}
 
The University's assets include an [[financial endowment|endowment]] valued at $19.4&nbsp;billion {{as of|2011|lc=y}},<ref>{{cite web|last=Conroy |first=Tom |url=http://dailybulletin.yale.edu/article.aspx?id=8925 |title=YaleNews &#124; Investment Return of 21.9% Brings Yale Endowment Value to $19.4 Billion |publisher=yale.edu |date=September 28, 2011 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> the second-largest of any academic institution in the world. Yale's system of more than two dozen libraries holds 12.5&nbsp;million volumes.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.library.yale.edu/libraries/libraries.html |title=Yale University Library: Libraries & Collections A-Z |publisher=Library.yale.edu |date=July 10, 2006 |accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref> 49 [[Nobel Prize|Nobel Laureates]] have been [[List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation|affiliated]] with the University as students, faculty, and staff. Yale has produced many notable alumni, including five [[List of Presidents of the United States by education|U.S. Presidents]], 19 [[List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States|U.S. Supreme Court Justices]], and several foreign heads of state. [[Yale Law School]] is particularly well-regarded and the most selective law school in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ilrg.com/rankings/law/index.php/1/asc/Accept/avg |title=2009 Raw Data Law School Rankings: Acceptance Rate (Ascending) |publisher=Internet Legal Research Group |accessdate=April 29, 2012}}</ref>
 
Το [[Πανεπιστήμιο Γέιλ]] είναι ένα Αμερικανικό ιδιωτικό πανεπιστήμιο που βρίσκεται στο New Haven, Κονέντικατ, στις [[Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες]]. Ιδρύθηκε το 1701 στην αποικία του Κονέκτικατ και είναι το τρίτο παλαιότερο ίδρυμα ανώτατης εκπαίδευσης στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες.
Yalies compete intercollegiately as the [[Yale Bulldogs]] in the [[NCAA]] [[Division I (NCAA)|Division I]] [[Ivy League]].
 
Ενσωματωμένο ως ''Κολλεγιακό Σχολείο'', το ίδρυμα έχει τις ρίζες του στους κληρικούς του 17ου αιώνα, οι οποίοι προσπάθησαν να καθιερώσουν ένα κολλέγιο που να εκπαιδεύει κληρικούς και πολιτικούς ηγέτες για την αποικία. Το 1718, το κολλέγιο μετονομάστηκε σε ''Κολλέγιο Γέιλ'' ως φόρος τιμής στον Έλιχου Γέιλ, ένα διοικητή της Βρετανικής Αποικίας των Ανατολικών Ινδιών. Το 1861, η Ανώτατη Σχολή Καλών Τεχνών και Επιστημών έγινε το πρώτο τμήμα που εξέδιδε [[διδακτορικό δίπλωμα]](P.h.D.).<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.yale.edu/schools/index.html Το Γέιλ εκδίδει πρώτο διδακτορικό]</ref> Το Γέιλ έγινε ιδρυτικό μέλος του Συνδέσμου Αμερικανικών Πανεπιστημιών το 1900. Το Κολλέγιο Γέιλ μεταμορφώθηκε στις αρχές του 1930, μέσω της δημιουργίας φοιτητικών εστιών: τώρα υπάρχουν 12 εστίες και σχεδιάζεται να χτιστούν άλλες 2. Το Γέιλ απασχολεί πάνω από 1,100 καθηγητές διδασκαλίας και συμβούλους, περίπου 5,300 προπτυχιακούς φοιτητές, 6,100 μεταπτυχιακούς φοιτητές και διδάκτορες. Σχεδόν όλοι οι μόνιμοι καθηγητές διδάσκουν προπτυχιακά μαθήματα, περισσότερα από 2,000 τα οποία προσφέρονται κάθε χρόνο.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2009/oct/15/undergraduate-teaching-requirement-a-myth/ Η διδασκαλία των προπτυχιακών μαθημάτων στο Γέιλ]</ref>
==History==
[[File:A Front View of Yale College and the College Chapel New Haven printed by Daniel Bowen.jpg|thumb|upright|''A Front View of Yale-College and the College Chapel'', Daniel Bowen, 1786.]]
 
Τα περιουσιακά στοιχεία του Γέιλ περιλαμβάνουν ένα κονδύλιο αξίας 19 δισεκατομμύρια δολλάρια ΗΠΑ το 2011<ref>^{{en}}[http://news.yale.edu/ Τα περιουσιακά στοιχεία του Γέιλ]</ref>, έχει τη δεύτερη μεγαλύτερη βιβλιοθήκε από οποιοδήποτε ακαδημαϊκό ίδρυμα στον κόσμο. Οι βιβλιοθήκες του Γέιλ περιέχουν 12,5 εκατομμύρια τόμους σε περισσότερες από δύο ντουζίνες βιβλιοθήκες.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.library.yale.edu/libraries/libraries.html Οι βιβλιοθήκες του Γέιλ]</ref> 49 Νομπελίστες έχουν συνδεθεί με το Πανεπιστήμιο ως φοιτητές, καθηγητές και προσωπικό. Στο Γέιλ συγκαταλέγονται πολλοί αξιοσημείωτοι απόφοιτοι, μεταξύ των πέντε πρόεδροι των ΗΠΑ, 19 Αμερικανοί Ανώτατοι Δικαστές και αρκετοί αρχηγοί ξένων κρατών. Η νομική σχολή του Γέιλ είναι αξιοσέβαστη και η πιο επιλεγόμενη νομική σχολή στις ΗΠΑ.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.ilrg.com/rankings/law/index.php/1/asc/Accept/avg Η νομική σχολή του Γέιλ]</ref>
===Origins===
Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the [[Connecticut Colony|Colony of Connecticut]] on October 9, 1701, in an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten [[Congregational church|Congregationalist]] ministers: Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, James Noyes, [[James Pierpont (Yale founder)|James Pierpont]], [[Abraham Pierson]], [[Noadiah Russell (Yale founder)|Noadiah Russell]], Joseph Webb and Timothy Woodbridge, all of whom were alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend [[Samuel Russell (Yale co-founder)|Samuel Russell]] in [[Branford, Connecticut]], to pool their books to form the school's first library.<ref>''[[The Harvard Crimson]]'': [http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=97832 "I'm Gonna Git Yoy Sukka: Classic Stories of Revenge at Harvard."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref> The group, led by [[James Pierpont (Yale founder)|James Pierpont]], is now known as "The Founders".
 
Οι Yalies αγωνίζονται ενδοκολλεγιακός ως Μπουλντογκ Γέιλ στο πρωτάθλημα NCAA Division I Ivy.
Originally called the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first [[Rector (academia)|rector]], [[Abraham Pierson]],<ref>Although Pierson was "rector" in his own time, he is today considered the first president of Yale.</ref> in [[Killingworth, Connecticut|Killingworth]] (now [[Clinton, Connecticut|Clinton]]). The school moved to [[Old Saybrook, Connecticut|Saybrook]], and then [[Wethersfield, Connecticut|Wethersfield]]. In 1718 the college moved to [[New Haven, Connecticut]].
[[File:Yale College diploma Nathaniel Chauncey 1702.jpg|thumb|First diploma awarded by [[Yale College]], granted to Nathaniel Chauncey, 1702.]]
Meanwhile, a rift was forming at Harvard between its sixth president [[Increase Mather]] and the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as increasingly liberal, ecclesiastically lax, and overly broad in [[Ecclesiastical polity|Church polity]]. The feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the [[Puritan]] religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not.<ref>
{{cite web|url=http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_057300_matherincrea.htm |title=Increase Mather}}, ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition]]'', [[Encyclopædia Britannica]]</ref>
 
In 1718, at the behest of either Rector [[Samuel Andrew]] or the colony's Governor [[Saltonstall family|Gurdon Saltonstall]], [[Cotton Mather]] contacted a successful businessman in [[Wales]] named [[Elihu Yale]] to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of [[Jeremiah Dummer]], Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in India as a representative of the [[British East India Company|East India Company]], donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time. Yale also donated 417&nbsp;books and a portrait of [[George I of Great Britain|King George&nbsp;I]]. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to [[Yale College]] in gratitude to its benefactor, and to increase the chances that he would give the college another large donation or bequest. Elihu Yale was away in India when the news of the school's name change reached his home in [[Wrexham]], Wales, a trip from which he never returned. While he did ultimately leave his fortunes to the "Collegiate School within His Majesties Colony of Connecticot",{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} the institution was never able to successfully lay claim to it.
[[File:A View of the Buildings of Yale College at New Haven 1807.jpg|thumb|left|Old Brick Row in 1807.]]
 
===Curriculum=Ιστορία==
Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the period—the [[Great Awakening]] and the [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]]—thanks to the religious and scientific interests of presidents [[Thomas Clap]] and [[Ezra Stiles]]. They were both instrumental in developing the scientific curriculum at Yale, while dealing with wars, student tumults, graffiti, "irrelevance" of curricula, desperate need for endowment, and fights with the Connecticut legislature.<ref>Louis Leonard Tucker, ''Puritan Protagonist: President Thomas Clap of Yale College'' (1970); Edmund S. Morgan, ''The Gentle Puritan: A Life of Ezra Stiles, 1727–1795'' (1970).</ref>
 
===Προέλευση===
Serious American students of theology and divinity, particularly in New England, regarded [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] as a classical language, along with Greek and [[Latin]], and essential for study of the [[Old Testament]] in the original words. The Reverend [[Ezra Stiles]], president of the College from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language as a vehicle for studying ancient [[Bible|Biblical texts]] in their original language (as was common in other schools), requiring all freshmen to study Hebrew (in contrast to Harvard, where only upperclassmen were required to study the language) and is responsible for the Hebrew phrase אורים ותמים ([[Urim and Thummim]]) on the Yale seal. Stiles' greatest challenge occurred in July 1779 when hostile British forces occupied New Haven and threatened to raze the College. Fortunately, Yale graduate [[Edmund Fanning (colonial administrator)|Edmund Fanning]], Secretary to the British General in command of the occupation, interceded and the College was saved. Fanning later was granted an honorary degree [[LL.D.]], at 1803,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~jwickham/edmund.htm |title=Edmund Fanning (1739–1818)|accessdate=June 30, 2009}}</ref> for his efforts.
[[File:Woolsey Hall Memorial Hall University Dining Hall Yale University.jpg|thumb|left|''[[Woolsey Hall]]'' in c. 1905]]
 
Τα ίχνη του Γέιλ ξεκινούν στην ''Μια Πράξη για την Ελευθερία για την ανέγερση ενός Κολλεγιακού Σχολείου, περνώντας από το Γενικό Δικαστήριο της αποικίας του Κονέκτικατ στις 9 Οκτωβρίου 1701,
The [[Directed Studies at Yale University|Directed Studies]] program was founded for 125 first-year students as an interdisciplinary course encompassing great works of Western thought.
σε μια προσπάθεια να δημιουργήσουν ένα ίδρυμα για την κατάρτιση των υπουργών και να θέσουν ηγεσία για το Κονέκτικατ. Λίγο αργότερα, μια ομάδα δέκα ανεξάρτητων υπουργών: Σάμουελ Άντριου,
Τόμας Μπάκιγχαμ, Ισραήλ Τσόνσι, Σάμουελ Μάδερ, Τζέιμς Νοις, Τζέιμς Πέρποντ, Έιμπραχαμ Πιρσον,
Νόντια Ράσελ, Τζόσεφ Γουέλ και Τίμοθι Γούντμπριτζ, όλοι απόφοιτοι του Πανεπιστημίου Χάρβαρντ, συναντήθηκαν στην μελέτη του Αιδεσιμότατου Ρίβερεντ Σάμουελ Ράσελ στο Μπράφορντ, Κονέκτικατ, για να συγκεντρώσουν τα βιβλία τους και να σχηματίσουν την πρώτη βιβλιοθήκη του σχολείου.
Η ομάδα με επικεφαλή τον Τζέιμς Πέρποντ είναι πλέον γνωστή ως ''Οι Ιδρυτές''.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1999/3/11/im-gonna-git-you-sukka-classic/ Η συγκέντρωση βιβλίων]</ref>
 
Αρχικά ονομαζόταν ''Κολλεγιακό Σχολείο'', το ίδρυμα άνοιξε στο σπίτι του πρώτου πρυτάνη του,
===Students===
Έιμπραχαμ Πιρσον στο Κίλινγουορθ (σήμερα Κλίντον). Το σχολείο μετακινήθηκε στο Σέιμπρουκ και στη συνέχεια στο Γουέδερσφιλντ. Το 1718 το κολλέγιο μετακινήθηκε στο Νιου Χέβεν, Κονέκτικατ.
As the only college in Connecticut, Yale educated the sons of the elite.<ref>Historian Bruce Daniels has used biographical dictionaries of the college graduates of Yale University, presents statistics on Yale graduates from the classes of 1702 to 1780, focusing on the graduates' career choices, their success in life, religious affiliation, vital statistics, the percentage of those who supported the American Revolution, and geographic mobility. See Bruce C. Daniels, "College Students and Puritan Society: a Quantitative Profile of Yale Graduates in Colonial America," ''Connecticut History'' 1982 (23): 1–23</ref> Offenses for which students were punished included cardplaying, tavern-going, destruction of college property, and acts of disobedience to college authorities. During the period, Harvard was distinctive for the stability and maturity of its tutor corps, while Yale had youth and zeal on its side.<ref>Kathryn McDaniel. Moore, "The War with the Tutors: Student-faculty Conflict at Harvard and Yale, 1745–1771," ''History of Education Quarterly'' 1978 18(2): 115–127,</ref>
 
Εν τω μεταξύ, ένα ρήγμα σχηματίστηκε στο Χάρβαρντ μεταξύ του έκτου προέδρου Ινκρίζ Μάδερ και του υπόλοιπου κλήρου του Χάρβαρντ, τους οποίους ο Μάδερ θεώρησε ως όλο και πιο φιλελεύθερους,
The emphasis on classics gave rise to a number of private student societies, open only by invitation, which arose primarily as forums for discussions of modern scholarship, literature and politics. The first such organizations were debating societies: [[Crotonia]] in 1738, [[Linonia]] in 1753, and [[Brothers in Unity]] in 1768.<ref>None of these continue to exist today. They are commemorated in names given to campus structures, such as Brothers in Unity Courtyard in Branford College.</ref>
εκκλησιαστικά χαλαρούς και υπερβολικά εκτεταμένους στο πολίτευμα της Εκκλησίας. Η διαμάχη προκάλεσε τους Μάδερ να υπερασπιστούν την επιτυχία του ''Κολλεγιακού Σχολείου'', με την ελπίδα ότι θα διατηρηθεί η Πουριτανική θρησκευτική ορθοδοξία με ένα τρόπο που το Χάρβαρντ δεν είχε.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Yale_University Η διαμάχη για το Κολλεγιακό Σχολείο]</ref>
[[File:Charter for Collegiate School later Yale College 1701.jpg|thumb|right|Η Χάρτα δημιουργίας του Κολλεγιακού Σχολείου, το οποίο μετονομάστηκε Γέιλ Κολλέγιο, στις 9 Οκτωβρίου, 1701]]
 
Το 1718, κατ'εντολή είτε του Πρύτανη Σάμουελ Άντριου ή του Κυβερνήτη της αποικίας Γκόβερνορ Γκάρντον, ο Κότον Μάδερ επικοινώνησε με έναν επιτυχημένο επιχειρηματία στην Ουαλία που ονομαζόταν Έλιχου Γέιλ, για να του ζητήσει οικονομική βοήθεια για την κατασκευή ενός νέου
===19th century===
κτιρίου στο κολλέγιο. Mέσα από την πίεση του Τζέρεμι Ντάμμερ, ο Γέιλ ο οποίος είχε κάνει μια περιουσία μέσω του εμπορίου ενώ ζούσε στην Ινδία ως εκπρόσωπος της εταιρείας Ανατολικών Ινδιών,
[[File:Yale Fence men sitting and leaning on it facing Chapel Street New Haven.jpg|thumb|right|Men leaning on the old Yale fence facing Chapel Street, c.&nbsp;1874.]]
δώρισε εννέα μπάλες χρυσού, που πουλήθηκαν για περισσότερο από 560 λίρες, ένα σημαντικό ποσό εκείνη την εποχή. Ο Γέιλ επίσης δώρισε 417 βιβλία και ένα πορτραίτο του Βασιλιά της [[Μεγάλη Βρετανία|Μεγάλης Βρετανίας]] Γεωργίου Α΄. Ο Κότον Μάδερ πρότεινε να μετονομαστεί το κολέγιο σε Γέιλ έτσι ώστε να τιμήσουν τον πρώτο ευεργέτη τους και να αυξήσουν τις πιθανότητες ότι θα δώσει στο κολλέγιο μια άλλη μεγάλη δωρεά ή κληροδότημα. Ο Έλιχου Γέιλ ήταν μακριά στην Ινδία όταν τα νέα της αλλαγής του ονόματος του σχολείου έφτασαν στο σπίτι του Ρέξαμ, [[Ουαλία]], ένα ταξίδι από το οποίο ποτέ δεν επέστρεψε. Ενώ τελικά άφησε την τύχη του στο ''Κολλεγιακό Σχολείο μέσω της Μεγαλειότητας του στην πολιτεία του Κονέκτικατ, το σύνταγμα δεν ήταν ποτέ σε θέση με επιτυχία να διεκδικήσει αυτό.
The Yale Report of 1828 was a dogmatic defense of the Latin and Greek curriculum against critics who wanted more courses in modern languages, mathematics, and science. Unlike higher education in Europe, there was no national curriculum for colleges and universities in the United States. In the competition for students and financial support, college leaders strove to keep current with demands for innovation. At the same time, they realized that a significant portion of their students and prospective students demanded a classical background. The Yale report meant the classics would not be abandoned. At the same time, all institutions experimented with changes in the curriculum, often resulting in a dual track. In the decentralized environment of higher education in the United States, balancing change with tradition was a common challenge because no one could afford to be completely modern or completely classical.<ref>Michael S. Pak, "The Yale Report of 1828: A New Reading and New Implications," ''History of Education Quarterly'' 2008 48(1): 30–57; Melvin I. Urofsky, "Reforms and Response: The Yale Report of 1828," ''History of Education Quarterly,'' Vol. 5, No. 1 (Mar., 1965), pp. 53–67 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/366937 in JSTOR]</ref> At the same time a group of professors at Yale and New Haven Congregationalist ministers articulated a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Victorian culture. They concentrated on developing a whole man possessed of religious values sufficiently strong to resist temptations from within, yet flexible enough to adjust to the 'isms' (professionalism, materialism, individualism, and consumerism) tempting him from without.<ref>Louise L. Stevenson, ''Scholarly Means to Evangelical Ends: The New Haven Scholars and the Transformation of Higher Learning in America, 1830–1890'' (1986)</ref>
Perhaps the most well-remembered{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} teacher was [[William Graham Sumner]], professor from 1872 to 1909. He taught in the emerging disciplines of economics and sociology to overflowing classrooms. He bested President [[Noah Porter]], who disliked social science and wanted Yale to lock into its traditions of classical education, 1879–81. Porter objected to Sumner's use of a textbook by [[Herbert Spencer]] that espoused agnostic materialism because it might intellectually, morally, and religiously harm students.<ref>Alfred McClung Lee, "The Forgotten Sumner," ''Journal of the History of Sociology'' 1980–1981 3(1): 87–106</ref>
 
===Πρόγραμμα Σπουδών===
====Sports and debate====
The Revolutionary War hero [[Nathan Hale]] (Yale 1773) was the prototype of the Yale ideal in the early 19th&nbsp;century: a manly yet aristocratic scholar, equally well-versed in knowledge and sports, and a patriot who regretted he had but one life to lose for his country. Western painter [[Frederic Remington]] (Yale 1900) was an artist whose heroes gloried in combat and tests of strength in the Wild West. The fictional, turn-of-the-20th-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel ''Stover at Yale'' (1911) questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school. Increasingly the students turned to athletic stars as their heroes, especially since winning the big game became the goal of the student body, and the alumni, as well as the team itself.<ref>Robert Higgs, "'Götterdämmerung' and Palingenesis: Yale and the Heroic Ideal, 1865–1914," ''Proteus'' 1986 3(1): 18–24</ref>
 
Το Γέιλ εμπνεύστηκε από τα μεγάλα πνευματικά κινήματα της εποχής -την μεγάλη Αφύπνιση και τον Διαφωτισμό -χάρη στα θρησκευτικά και επιστημονικά ενδιαφέροντα των προέδρων Τόμας Κλαπ και Έζρα Στάιλς. Και οι δύο είχαν συμβάλει στην ανάπτυξη του επιστημονικού προγράμματος σπουδών στο Γέιλ, ενώ αντιμετώπιζαν πολέμους, βίαιους φοιτητές, γκραφίτι, ''ασχετοσύνη'' των προγραμμάτων σπουδών, απελπιστική ανάγκη για δωρεά και μάχες με το νομοθετικό σώμα του Κονέκτικατ.<ref>^{{en}}[http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/228341?uid=3738128&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101168679037 Ο πρόεδρος Τόμας Κλαπ]</ref>
Along with Harvard and [[Princeton University|Princeton]], Yale students rejected elite British concepts about 'amateurism' in sports and constructed athletic programs that were uniquely American, such as football.<ref>Ronald A. Smith, ''Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big Time College Athletics'' (1988)</ref> The [[Harvard–Yale football rivalry]] began in 1875.
[[File:Yale's four-oared crew team with 1876 Centennial Regatta trophy.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Yale's four-oared [[Rowing (sport)|crew]] team, posing with 1876 Centennial [[Regatta]] [[trophy]], won at [[Philadelphia]].]]
Between 1892, when Harvard and Yale met in the first intercollegiate debate, and 1909, the year of the first Triangular Debate of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, the rhetoric, symbolism, and metaphors used in athletics were used to frame these early debates. Debates were covered on front pages of college newspapers and emphasized in yearbooks, and team members even received the equivalent of athletic letters for their jackets. There even were rallies sending off the debating teams to matches. Yet, the debates never attained the broad appeal that athletics enjoyed. One reason may be that debates do not have a clear winner, as is the case in sports, and that scoring is subjective. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart.<ref>Roberta J. Park, "Muscle, Mind, and 'Agon:' Intercollegiate Debating and Athletics at Harvard and Yale, 1892–1909," ''Journal of Sport History'' 1987 14(3): 263–285</ref>
 
Σοβαροί Αμερικανοί φοιτητές της θεολογίας και της θεότητας, ιδιαίτερα στην Nέα Αγγλία θεώρησαν τα Εβραϊκά ως κλασσική γλώσσα, μαζί με τα Ελληνικά και τα Λατινικά και απαραίτητα για την μελέτη της Παλαιάς Διαθήκης από το πρωτότυπο κείμενο. Ο Αιδεσιμότατος Έζρα Στάιλς, πρόεδρος του Κολλεγίου από το 1778 ως το 1795, έφερε μαζί του το ενδιαφέρον για την Εβραϊκη γλώσσα ως όχημα για την μελέτη αρχαίων Βιβλικών κειμένων στο πρωτότυπο κείμενο (όπως είναι κοινό σε άλλα σχολεία), απαιτώντας από όλους τους πρωτοετείς φοιτητές μελετήσουν Εβραϊκα ( σε αντίθεση με το Χάρβαρντ, όπου μόνο οι δευτεροετείς φοιτητές όφειλαν να μελετούν Εβραϊκα) και είναι υπέυθυνο για την φράση στα Εβραϊκα אורים ותמים (Urim and Thummim -Φως και Αλήθεια) στην σφραγίδα του Γέιλ. Η μεγαλύτερη πρόκληση του Στάιλς εμφανίστηκε τον Ιούλιο του 1779 όταν Βρετανικές εχθρικές δυνάμεις κατέλαβαν το Νιού Χέβεν και απείλησαν να ισοπεδώσουν το Κολλέγιο. Ευτυχώς, ο απόφοιτος του Γέιλ Έντμαντ Φάνινγκ, γραμματέας στο Βρετανικό Γενικό στην εντολή της κατοχής, μεσολάβησε και το Κολλέγιο σώθηκε. Αργότερα δόθηκε στον Φάνινγκ τιμητικός βαθμός LLD, το 1803 για τις προσπαθειές του.<ref>^{{en}}[http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~jwickham/edmund.htm Η βοήθεια του Φάνινγκ]</ref>
In 1909–10, football faced a crisis resulting from the failure of the previous reforms of 1905–06 to solve the problem of serious injuries. There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport. President Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate changes to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The big three had tried to operate independently of the majority, but changes did reduce injuries.<ref>John S., Watterson III, "The Football Crisis of 1909–1910: the Response of the Eastern 'Big Three'," ''Journal of Sport History'' 1981 8(1): 33–49</ref>
 
To πρόγραμμα σπουδών Σκηνοθεσίας ιδρύθηκε για 125 πρωτοετείς φοιτητές σαν ένα διεπιστημονικό μάθημα περιλαμβάνει μεγάλα έργα της Δυτικής σκέψης.
===Expansion===
[[File:View of Connecticut Hall Old Campus Yale College New Haven Connecticut.jpg|thumb|left|Connecticut Hall, oldest building on the Yale campus, built between 1750 and 1753.]]
 
Επίσης το πανεπιστήμιο είναι διάσημο για τις συλλογές τις οποίες έχει στην ιδιοκτησία του. Χαρακτηριστικό είναι ότι μόνο το κεντρικό κτίριο της βιβλιοθήκης έχει 4 εκατομμύρια τόμους. Επίσης αξιόλογη είναι και η συλλογή έργων τέχνης του πανεπιστημίου, το οποίο περιέχει κυρίως έργα [[μοντέρνα τέχνη|μοντέρνας τέχνης]]. Το μουσείο Yale για τη βρετανική τέχνη, το οποίο στεγάζεται σε κτήριο του γνωστού αρχιτέκτονα Louis Kahn, φιλοξενεί τη μεγαλύτερη συλλογή βρετανικής τέχνης εκτός συνόρων της Μεγάλης Βρετανίας.
Yale expanded gradually, establishing the [[Yale School of Medicine]] (1810), [[Yale Divinity School]] (1822), [[Yale Law School]] (1843), [[Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences]] (1847), the [[Sheffield Scientific School]] (1847),<ref>Sheffield was originally named Yale Scientific School; it was renamed in 1861 after a major donation from [[Joseph E. Sheffield]].</ref> and the [[Yale School of Art|Yale School of Fine Arts]] (1869). In 1887, as the college continued to grow under the presidency of [[Timothy Dwight&nbsp;V]], Yale College was renamed Yale University. The university would later add the [[Yale School of Music]] (1894), the [[Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies]] (founded by [[Gifford Pinchot]] in 1901), the [[Yale School of Public Health]] (1915), the [[Yale School of Nursing]] (1923), the [[Yale School of Drama]] (1955), the [[Yale Physician Associate Program]] (1973), and the [[Yale School of Management]] (1976). It would also reorganize its relationship with the Sheffield Scientific School.
 
Ανάμεσα στους αποφοίτους του πανεπιστημίου συγκαταλέγονται ισχυρές προσωπικότητες όπως οι [[Τζωρτζ Μπους (νεότερος)|Τζώρτζ Μπους τζούνιορ]], [[Τζωρτζ Μπους (πρεσβύτερος)|Τζώρτζ Μπους ο πρεσβύτερος]], [[Μπιλ Κλίντον]] κ.α.
Expansion caused controversy about Yale's new roles. [[Noah Porter]], moral philosopher, was president from 1871 to 1886. During an age of tremendous expansion in higher education, Porter resisted the rise of the new research university, claiming that an eager embrace of its ideals would corrupt undergraduate education. Many of Porter's contemporaries criticized his administration, and historians since have disparaged his leadership. Levesque argues Porter was not a simple-minded reactionary, uncritically committed to tradition, but a principled and selective conservative.<ref>George Levesque, "Noah Porter Revisited," ''Perspectives on the History of Higher Education'' 2007 26: 29–66,</ref> He did not endorse everything old or reject everything new; rather, he sought to apply long-established ethical and pedagogical principles to a rapidly changing culture. He may have misunderstood some of the challenges of his time, but he correctly anticipated the enduring tensions that have accompanied the emergence and growth of the modern university.
[[File:PostcardNewHavenCTYaleUBirdsEye1911.jpg|thumb|right|Aerial view from the south, 1906.]]
 
== Αναφορές ==
===20th century===
<div style="font-size:90%;"><references/></div>
 
== Εξωτερικές συνδέσεις ==
====Behavioral sciences====
Between 1925 and 1940, philanthropic foundations, especially ones connected with the Rockefellers, contributed about $7&nbsp;million to support the Yale Institute of Human Relations and the affiliated Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. The money went toward behavioral science research, which was supported by foundation officers who aimed to "improve mankind" under an informal, loosely defined human engineering effort. The behavioral scientists at Yale, led by President [[James R. Angell]] and psychobiologist [[Robert M. Yerkes]], tapped into foundation largesse by crafting research programs aimed to investigate, then suggest, ways to control, sexual and social behavior. For example, Yerkes analyzed chimpanzee sexual behavior in hopes of illuminating the evolutionary underpinnings of human development and providing information that could ameliorate dysfunction. Ultimately, the behavioral-science results disappointed foundation officers, who shifted their human-engineering funds toward biological sciences.<ref>Kersten Jacobson Biehn, "Psychobiology, Sex Research and Chimpanzees: Philanthropic Foundation Support for the Behavioral Sciences at Yale University, 1923–41," ''History of the Human Sciences'' 2008 21(2): 21–43,</ref>
 
{{commonscat|Yale University}}
====Biology====
* [http://www.yale.edu Επίσημη ιστοσελίδα]
Slack (2003) compares three groups that conducted biological research at Yale during overlapping periods between 1910 and 1970. Yale proved important as a site for this research. The leaders of these groups were [[Ross Granville Harrison]], [[Grace E. Pickford]], and [[G.&nbsp;Evelyn Hutchinson]], and their members included both graduate students and more experienced scientists. All produced innovative research, including the opening of new subfields in embryology, endocrinology, and ecology, respectively, over a long period of time. Harrison's group is shown to have been a classic research school; Pickford's and Hutchinson's were not. Pickford's group was successful in spite of her lack of departmental or institutional position or power. Hutchinson and his graduate and postgraduate students were extremely productive, but in diverse areas of ecology rather than one focused area of research or the use of one set of research tools. Hutchinson's example shows that new models for research groups are needed, especially for those that include extensive field research.<ref>Nancy G. Slack, "Are Research Schools Necessary? Contrasting Models of 20th Century Research at Yale Led by Ross Granville Harrison, Grace E. Pickford and G. Evelyn Hutchinson," ''Journal of the History of Biology'' 2003 36(3): 501–529,</ref>
 
{{coord|41.311150|-72.92655|region:US_type:edu|display=title}}
====Medicine====
Milton Winternitz led the [[Yale Medical School]] as its dean from 1920 to 1935. An innovative, even maverick, leader, he not only kept the school from going under but also turned it into a first-class research institution.{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} Dedicated to the new scientific medicine established in Germany, he was equally fervent about "social medicine" and the study of humans in their culture and environment. He established the "Yale System" of teaching, with few lectures and fewer exams, and strengthened the full-time faculty system; he also created the graduate-level Yale School of Nursing and the Psychiatry Department, and built numerous new buildings. Progress toward his plans for an Institute of Human Relations, envisioned as a refuge where social scientists would collaborate with biological scientists in a holistic study of humankind, unfortunately lasted for only a few years before the opposition of resentful anti-Semitic colleagues drove him to resign.<ref>Howard Spiro and Priscilla Waters Norton, "Dean Milton C. Winternitz at Yale," ''Perspectives in Biology & Medicine'' 2003 46(3): 403–412,</ref>
 
[[Κατηγορία:Πανεπιστήμια στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες Αμερικής|Γέηλ]]
====Faculty====
Before [[World War&nbsp;II]], most elite university faculties counted among their numbers few, if any, Jews, blacks, women, or other minorities; Yale was no exception. By 1980, this condition had been altered dramatically, as numerous members of those groups held faculty positions.<ref>William Palmer, "On or about 1950 or 1955 History Departments Changed: A Step in the Creation of the Modern History Department," ''Journal of the Historical Society'' (1529921x); 2007 7(3): 385–405</ref>
 
====History and American Studies====
The American studies program reflected the worldwide anti-Communist ideological struggle. [[Norman Holmes Pearson]], who worked for the Office of Strategic Studies in London during World War II, returned to Yale and headed the new American studies program, in which scholarship quickly became an instrument of promoting liberty. Popular among undergraduates, the program sought to instruct them in the fundamentals of American civilization and thereby instill a sense of nationalism and national purpose.<ref>Michael Holzman, "The Ideological Origins of American Studies at Yale," ''American Studies'' 40:2 (Summer 1999): 71–99</ref> Also during the 1940s and 1950s, Wyoming millionaire William R. Coe made large contributions to the American studies programs at Yale University and at the University of Wyoming. Coe was concerned to celebrate the 'values' of the Western United States in order to meet the "threat of communism."<ref>Liza Nicholas, "Wyoming as America: Celebrations, a Museum, and Yale," ''American Quarterly'', Vol. 54, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 437–465 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/30042228 in JSTOR]</ref>
 
====Women====
Women studied at Yale University as early as 1892, in graduate-level programs at the [[Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences]].<ref>Yale.edu, http://www.library.yale.edu/mssa/YHO/brief_history.html</ref>
 
In 1966, Yale began discussions with its [[sister school]] [[Vassar College]] about merging to foster coeducation at the undergraduate level. Vassar, then all-female, declined the invitation. Both schools introduced coeducation independently in 1969.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/index.php/A_History_of_the_Curriculum_1865-1970s |title=A History of the Curriculum 1865-1970s – Vassar College Encyclopedia |publisher=Vassar.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> Amy Solomon was the first woman to register as a Yale undergraduate;<ref>Yale Bulletin and Calendar: [http://www.yale.edu/opa/v29.n23/story4.html "Transformations brought about by Yale women."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref> she was also the first woman at Yale to join an undergraduate society, [[St. Anthony Hall]].
 
A decade into co-education, rampant student assault and harassment by faculty became the impetus for the trailblazing lawsuit [[Alexander v. Yale]]. While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale's Grievance Board and the Yale Women's Center.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mcolaw.com/docs/ao_tobreakthesilence_speech.pdf |title=To Break the Silence |format=PDF |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> In March 2011 a Title IX complaint was filed against Yale.<ref>Huffington Post: [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/31/yale-students-file-title-_n_843306.html "Yale Students File Title IX Suit Against the University"]. Retrieved April 29, 2011.</ref>
 
===Class===
Yale, like other Ivy League schools, instituted policies in the early 20th century designed to increase the proportion of white Protestants of notable families in the student body (see ''[[numerus clausus]]''), and was one of the last of the Ivies to eliminate such preferences, beginning with the class of 1970.<ref>''[[Yale Alumni Magazine]]'': [http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/99_12/admissions.html "The Birth of a New Institution."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref>
 
====Town-gown relations====
Yale has a complicated relationship with its home city; for example, thousands of students volunteer every year in a myriad of community organizations, but city officials, who decry Yale's exemption from local property taxes, have long pressed the university to do more to help. Under President Levin, Yale has financially supported many of New Haven's efforts to reinvigorate the city. Evidence suggests that the [[town and gown]] relationships are mutually beneficial. Still, the economic power of the university increased dramatically with its financial success amid a decline in the local economy.<ref>Gordon Lafer, "Land and Labor in the Post-Industrial University Town: Remaking Social Geography," ''Political Geography'' 2003 22(1): 89–117, focuses on Yale.</ref>
 
===Yale in the 21st century===
In 2006, Yale and [[Peking University]] (PKU) established a Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing, an [[exchange program]] allowing Yale students to spend a semester living and studying with PKU honor students.<ref name="yalePKU2012">{{cite web |url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2012/jul/27/end-yale-pku-admins-hopes-unfulfilled/ |title=With end of Yale-PKU, admins' hopes unfulfilled |first1=Gavan |last1=Gideon |first2=Daniel |last2=Sisgoreo |first3=Tapley |last3=Stephenson |work= [[Yale Daily News]] | date= July 27, 2012 |publisher=The Yale Daily News Publishing Company |location=New Haven, CT, USA |accessdate=August 1, 2012}}</ref>
 
In 2007 outgoing Yale President [[Rick Levin]] characterized Yale's institutional priorities: "First, among the nation's finest research universities, Yale is distinctively committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders."<ref>{{cite journal|journal=Yale Alumni Magazine| url= http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/96_12/levin.html|title=Preparing for Yale's Fourth Century| accessdate= 2007-04-10}}</ref>
 
The ''[[Boston Globe]]'' wrote that "if there's one school that can lay claim to educating the nation's top national leaders over the past three decades, it's Yale."<ref name="Magazine p. 6">''[[Boston Globe]]'' November 17, 2002, Magazine, p. 6</ref> [[Yale alumni]] were represented on the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] or [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] ticket in every U.S. Presidential election between 1972 and 2004. Yale-educated Presidents since the end of the [[Vietnam War]] include [[Gerald Ford]], [[George H.W. Bush]], [[Bill Clinton]], and [[George W. Bush]], and major-party nominees during this period include [[John Kerry]] (2004), [[Joseph Lieberman]] (Vice President, 2000), and [[Sargent Shriver]] (Vice President, 1972). Other Yale alumni who made serious bids for the Presidency during this period include [[Hillary Rodham Clinton]] (2008), [[Howard Dean]] (2004), [[Gary Hart]] (1984 and 1988), [[Paul Tsongas]] (1992), [[Pat Robertson]] (1988) and [[Jerry Brown]] (1976, 1980, 1992).
 
Several explanations have been offered for Yale’s representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the 1960s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend [[William Sloane Coffin]] on many of the future candidates.<ref name="ReferenceA">''[[Los Angeles Times]]'' October 4, 2000, p. E1</ref> Yale President Richard Levin attributes the run to Yale’s focus on creating "a laboratory for future leaders," an institutional priority that began during the tenure of Yale Presidents [[Alfred Whitney Griswold]] and [[Kingman Brewster]].<ref name="ReferenceA"/> [[Richard H. Brodhead]], former dean of Yale College and now president of [[Duke University]], stated: "We do give very significant attention to orientation to the community in our admissions, and there is a very strong tradition of [[volunteerism]] at Yale."<ref name="Magazine p. 6"/> Yale historian [[Gaddis Smith]] notes "an ethos of organized activity" at Yale during the 20th century that led John Kerry to lead the [[Yale Political Union]]'s Liberal Party, [[George Pataki]] the Conservative Party, and Joseph Lieberman to manage the ''[[Yale Daily News]]''.<ref>{{Cite news|newspaper=[[New York Times]]|date=August 13, 2000|page=14|postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref> [[Camille Paglia]] points to a history of networking and elitism: "It has to do with a web of friendships and affiliations built up in school."<ref>{{Cite news|newspaper=[[Boston Globe]]|date=August 13, 2000|page=F1|postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref> CNN suggests that George W. Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the "son and grandson of alumni", and for a "member of a politically influential family."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/01/20/timep.affirm.action.tm/|last=Kinsley|first=Michael|title=How affirmative action helped George W.|date=January 20, 2003 | work=CNN}}</ref> ''[[New York Times]]'' correspondent [[Elisabeth Bumiller]] and ''[[The Atlantic Monthly]]'' correspondent [[James Fallows]] credit the culture of community and cooperation that exists between students, faculty, and administration, which downplays self-interest and reinforces commitment to others.<ref>{{cite journal|journal=Yale Alumni Magazine|date=May/June 2004|page=45}}</ref>
 
During the 1988 presidential election, [[George H.&nbsp;W. Bush]] (Yale '48) derided [[Michael Dukakis]] for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique". When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis's Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it" and said Yale did not share Harvard's reputation for "liberalism and elitism".<ref>
{{cite web|url=http://www.tarpley.net/bush22.htm|title=George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography: Chapter XXII Bush Takes The Presidency|first=Webster G.| last=Tarpley| first2=Anton|last2=Chaitkin| publisher= Webster G. Tarpley|accessdate=December 17, 2006}} <!--obviously a poor source but it has the exact phrase the New York Times columnists are referring to, which I couldn't find in the NYT articles themselves-->
</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Dowd|first=Maureen|title=Bush Traces How Yale Differs From Harvard|newspaper=New York Times|date=June 11, 1998|page=10|authorlink=Maureen Dowd}}</ref> In 2004 [[Howard Dean]] stated, "In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. Yale changed so much between the class of '68 and the class of '71. My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation".<ref>{{cite journal|journal=Yale Alumni Magazine|url=http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/2004_05/presidents.html|title=For Country: The (Second) Great All-Blue Presidential Race|accessdate=April 9, 2007}}</ref>
 
In 2009, former [[British Prime Minister]] [[Tony Blair]] picked Yale as one location – the others are Britain's [[Durham University]] and [[Universiti Teknologi Mara]] – for the [[Tony Blair Faith Foundation]]'s United States Faith and Globalization Initiative.<ref>{{cite web|title=Seeking to Understand Faith and Globalisation |url=http://www.tonyblairfaithfoundation.org/projects/faith-and-globalisation/|publisher=The Tony Blair Faith Foundation|accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref> As of 2009, former Mexican President [[Ernesto Zedillo]] is the director of the [[Yale Center for the Study of Globalization]] and teaches an undergraduate seminar, "Debating Globalization".<ref>
{{cite web|url=http://www.ycsg.yale.edu/center/zedillo.html|title=Ernesto Zedillo Biography|publisher=Yale Center for the Study of Globalization|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref> As of 2009, former presidential candidate and DNC chair [[Howard Dean]] teaches a residential college seminar, "Understanding Politics and Politicians."<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2009/jan/26/howard-dean-professor/|title=Howard Dean, professor?|first=Eileen|last=Shim|publisher=Yale Daily News|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref> Also in 2009, an alliance was formed among Yale, [[University College London]], and both schools’ affiliated hospital complexes to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care—a growing field known as translational medicine. President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but "no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2009/oct/09/yale-joins-research-alliance|title=Yale joins research alliance|author=Drew Henderson|publisher=Yale Daily News}}</ref>
 
In July 2012, the Peking University-Yale University Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing ended due to weak participation.<ref name="yalePKU2012"/>
 
==Administration and organization==
The [[President and Fellows of Yale College]], also known as the [[Yale Corporation]], is the governing board of the University.
 
Yale's president [[Richard C. Levin]] is one of the highest paid university presidents in the United States with a 2008 salary of $1.5 million.<ref>{{cite news|title=Million-dollar college presidents on the rise|work=Washington Post|date=November 15, 2010|first=Daniel|last=de Vise|page=B1}}</ref>
 
The Yale Provost's Office has launched several women into prominent university presidencies. In 1977 [[Hanna Holborn Gray]] was appointed acting President of Yale from this position, and went on to become President of the [[University of Chicago]], the first woman to be full president of a major university. In 1994 Yale Provost [[Judith Rodin]] became the first female president of an Ivy League institution at the [[University of Pennsylvania]]. In 2002 Provost [[Alison Richard]] became the Vice Chancellor of the [[University of Cambridge]]. In 2004, Provost [[Susan Hockfield]] became the President of the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]]. In 2007 Deputy Provost Kim Bottomly was named President of [[Wellesley College]].
 
In 2008 Provost Andrew Hamilton was confirmed to be the Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford.<ref>''[[Yale Daily News]]'': [http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/21069 "Bottomly to Leave for Wellesley Presidency."]</ref> Former Dean of Yale College [[Richard H. Brodhead]] serves as the President of [[Duke University]].
 
===Staff and labor unions===
{{Main|Federation of Hospital and University Employees}}
Much of Yale University's staff, including most maintenance staff, dining hall employees, and administrative staff, are unionized. Clerical and technical employees are represented by Local&nbsp;34 of [[Unite Here]] and service and maintenance workers by Local&nbsp;35 of the same [[Trade union|international]]. Together with the [[Graduate Employees and Students Organization]] (GESO), an unrecognized union of graduate employees, Locals&nbsp;34 and 35 make up the [[Federation of Hospital and University Employees]]. Also included in FHUE are the dietary workers at [[Yale-New Haven Hospital]], who are members of [[1199SEIU United Healthcare Workers East|1199 SEIU]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yaleunions.org/ |title=YaleUnions.org |publisher=YaleUnions.org |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> In addition to these unions, officers of the Yale University Police Department are members of the Yale Police Benevolent Association, which affiliated in 2005 with the Connecticut Organization for Public Safety Employees.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2005/apr/01/yale-police-union-to-join-cops/ | work=Yale Daily News | title=Yale Police union to join COPS | first=Sam | last=Kahn | date=April 1, 2005}}</ref> Finally, Yale security officers voted to join the [[Security Guard#Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America|International Union of Security, Police and Fire Professionals of America]] in fall 2010 after the [[National Labor Relations Board]] ruled they could not join [[AFSCME]]; the Yale administration contested the election.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2010/oct/14/yale-security-votes-to-unionize-thursday/ | work=Yale Daily News | title=Yale Security votes to unionize Thursday | first=Everett | last=Rosenfeld | date=October 14, 2010}} {{cite news| url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2010/oct/15/union-vote-contested-by-yale/ | work=Yale Daily News | title=Union Vote Contested by Yale | first=Everett | last=Rosenfeld | date=October 15, 2010}}</ref>
 
Yale has a history of difficult and prolonged labor negotiations, often culminating in strikes.<ref>See Toni Gilpin, Gary Isaac, Dan Letwin, and Jack McKivigan, ''On Strike for Respect: The Clerical and Technical Workers' Strike at Yale University, 1984–85'' (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995).</ref> There have been at least eight strikes since 1968, and ''[[The New York Times]]'' wrote that Yale has a reputation as having the worst record of labor tension of any university in the U.S.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9501E2DE173FF937A35750C0A9659C8B63 | work=New York Times | title=Yale's Labor Troubles Deepen as Thousands Go on Strike | first=Steven | last=Greenhouse | date=March 4, 2003}}</ref> Yale's unusually large endowment exacerbates the tension over wages. Moreover, Yale has been accused of failing to treat workers with respect.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/ns03062003.cfm |title=Solidarity Strong as Yale Strike Ends |publisher=Aflcio.org |date=March 6, 2003 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> In a 2003 strike, however, the university claimed that more union employees were working than striking.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/03-09-12-02.all.html |title=Office of Public Affairs at Yale – News Release |publisher=Yale.edu |date=September 12, 2003 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> Professor [[David Graeber]] was 'retired' after he came to the defense of a student who was involved in campus labor issues.<ref>[http://www.charlierose.com/view/interview/473 Charlie Rose Show], Interview with David Graeber, 2006, PBS</ref>
 
==Campus==
[[File:Yale law school.JPG|left|thumb|300px|Yale Law School.]]
 
Yale's central campus in [[downtown New Haven]] covers {{convert|260|acre|km2|1}}. An additional {{convert|500|acre|km2}} includes the [[Yale golf course]] and nature preserves in rural Connecticut and [[Thimble Islands|Horse Island]].<ref>Yale University: [http://www.yale.edu/about/YALEFRMW.pdf "A Framework for Campus Planning."]. Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref>
 
Yale is noted for its largely [[Collegiate Gothic]] campus<ref>[http://www.pbase.com/czsz/yale&page=all Assorted pictures of Yale's campus.]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref> as well as for several iconic modern buildings commonly discussed in architectural history survey courses: [[Louis Kahn]]'s Yale Art Gallery<ref>[http://artgallery.yale.edu/pages/collection/buildings/build_kahn.html About the Yale Art Gallery.], Retrieved April 10, 2007. {{Wayback | url=http://artgallery.yale.edu/pages/collection/buildings/build_kahn.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> | date=20070408085433 }}</ref> and Center for British Art, [[Eero Saarinen]]'s Ingalls Rink and Ezra Stiles and Morse Colleges, and [[Paul Rudolph (architect)|Paul Rudolph's]] [[Yale Art and Architecture Building|Art & Architecture Building]]. Yale also owns and has restored many noteworthy 19th-century mansions along [[Hillhouse Avenue]], which was considered the most beautiful street in America by [[Charles Dickens]] when he visited the United States in the 1840s.
 
Many of Yale's buildings were constructed in the [[Collegiate Gothic]] architecture style from 1917 to 1931, financed largely by [[Edward S. Harkness]]<ref>Synnott, Marcia Graham. ''The Half-Opened Door: Discrimination and admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900 – 1970'', [[Greenwood Press]], 1979. [[Westport, Connecticut]], London, England</ref> Stone sculpture built into the walls of the buildings portray contemporary college personalities such as a writer, an athlete, a tea-drinking socialite, and a student who has fallen asleep while reading. Similarly, the decorative [[frieze]]s on the buildings depict contemporary scenes such as policemen chasing a robber and arresting a prostitute (on the wall of the Law School), or a student relaxing with a mug of beer and a cigarette. The architect, [[James Gamble Rogers]], faux-aged these buildings by splashing the walls with acid,<ref>''[[Yale Herald]]'': [http://www.yaleherald.com/article.php?Article=3566 "Donor steps up to fund CCL renovations."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref> deliberately breaking their [[lead glass|leaded glass]] windows and repairing them in the style of the [[Middle Ages]], and creating niches for decorative statuary but leaving them empty to simulate loss or theft over the ages. In fact, the buildings merely simulate Middle Ages architecture, for though they appear to be constructed of solid stone blocks in the authentic manner, most actually have steel framing as was commonly used in 1930. One exception is [[Harkness Tower]], {{convert|216|ft|m|0}} tall, which was originally a free-standing stone structure. It was reinforced in 1964 to allow the installation of the [[Yale Memorial Carillon]].
 
Other examples of the Gothic (also called neo-Gothic and collegiate Gothic) style are on [[Old Campus]] by such architects as [[Henry Austin (architect)|Henry Austin]], [[Charles C. Haight]] and [[Russell Sturgis]]. Several are associated with members of the [[Vanderbilt family]], including Vanderbilt Hall,<ref>[http://www.hsnparch.com/projects/yale/vanderbilt/vanderEXT1.htm Vanderbilt Hall]</ref> Phelps Hall,<ref>[http://mssa.library.yale.edu/madid/showzoom.php?id=ru&ruid=151&pg=1&imgNum=4912 Phelps Hall]{{dead link|date=December 2011}}</ref> [[St. Anthony Hall]] (a commission for member [[Frederick William Vanderbilt]]), the Mason, Sloane and Osborn laboratories, dormitories for the [[Sheffield Scientific School]] (the engineering and sciences school at Yale until 1956) and elements of [[Silliman College]], the largest residential college.<ref>[http://www.facilities.yale.edu/Campus/Building1.asp%3FlstBldg%3D1800+charles+haight+yale&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=8 Silliman College]{{dead link|date=December 2011}}</ref>
[[File:NathanHaleStatue.jpg|upright|thumb|Statue of [[Nathan Hale]] in front of [[Connecticut Hall]]]]
 
The oldest building on campus, [[Connecticut Hall]] (built in 1750), is in the [[Georgian architecture|Georgian style]]. Georgian-style buildings erected from 1929 to 1933 include [[Timothy Dwight College]], [[Pierson College]], and [[Davenport College]], except the latter's east, York Street façade, which was constructed in the [[Gothic architecture|Gothic style]].
 
The [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library]], designed by [[Gordon Bunshaft]] of [[Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill]], is one of the largest buildings in the world reserved exclusively for the preservation of rare books and manuscripts.<ref>Beinecke Rare Book Library: [http://www.library.yale.edu/beinecke/brblinfo/brblslides.html "About the Library Building."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref> It is located near the center of the University in [[Hewitt Quadrangle]], which is now more commonly referred to as "[[Beinecke Plaza]]".
 
The library's six-story above-ground tower of book stacks is surrounded by a windowless rectangular building with walls made of translucent Vermont marble, which transmit subdued lighting to the interior and provide protection from direct light, while glowing from within after dark.
 
[[File:BeineckeInterior.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Beinecke Library|Interior of Beinecke Library]].]]
 
The sculptures in the sunken courtyard by [[Isamu Noguchi]] are said to represent time (the pyramid), the sun (the circle), and chance (the cube).
 
Alumnus [[Eero Saarinen]], Finnish-American architect of such notable structures as the [[Gateway Arch]] in St.&nbsp;Louis, [[Washington Dulles International Airport]] main terminal, [[Bell Labs Holmdel Complex]] and the [[CBS Building]] in Manhattan, designed [[Ingalls Rink]] at Yale and the newest residential colleges of Ezra Stiles and Morse. These latter were modelled after the medieval Italian hilltown of [[San Gimignano]] – a prototype chosen for the town's pedestrian-friendly milieu and fortress-like stone towers. These tower forms at Yale act in counterpoint to the college's many Gothic spires and Georgian cupolas.<ref>[http://www.ezrastilescollege.org/Images/album6/ Assorted pictures of Ezra Stiles College], Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref>
 
Yale's Office of Sustainability develops and implements sustainability practices at Yale.<ref name="Yale Sustainability Strategy">{{cite web
| title =Yale Sustainability Strategy
| publisher =Yale University
| url = http://www.yale.edu/sustainability/strategy.htm
| accessdate =June 3, 2008 }}</ref> Yale is committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 10% below 1990 levels by the year 2020. As part of this commitment, the university allocates renewable energy credits to offset some of the energy used by residential colleges.<ref name="Yale commits to long-term Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Renewable Energy Strategy">{{cite web
| title =Yale commits to long-term Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Renewable Energy Strategy
| publisher =Yale University
| url =http://www.yale.edu/sustainability/yaleCommits.htm
| accessdate =June 3, 2008 }}</ref> Eleven campus buildings are candidates for LEED design and certification.<ref name="Yale’s Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy">{{cite web
| title =Yale’s Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy
| publisher =Yale University
| url =http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:9V9KQM2ibk4J:www.yale.edu/environ/docs/greenhouse_fin1.pdf+yale+LEED+eleven&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us&client=firefox-a | accessdate =June 3, 2008 }}</ref> Yale Sustainable Food Project initiated the introduction of local, organic vegetables, fruits, and beef to all residential college dining halls.<ref name="Yale Sustainable Food Project">{{cite web
| title =Yale Sustainable Food Project
| publisher =Yale University
| url = http://www.yale.edu/sustainablefood/
| accessdate =June 3, 2008 }}</ref> Yale was listed as a Campus Sustainability Leader on the Sustainable Endowments Institute’s College Sustainability Report Card 2008, and received a “B+” grade overall.<ref name="Sustainable Endowments Institute Report Card">{{cite web
| title =College Sustainability Report Card 2008
| publisher =Sustainable Endowments Institute
| url =http://www.endowmentinstitute.org/
| accessdate =June 3, 2008 }}</ref>
* [[Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven]]
* [[Marsh Botanical Garden]]
* [[Yale Sustainable Food Project|Yale Sustainable Food Project Farm]]
 
===Notable nonresidential campus buildings===
Notable nonresidential campus buildings and landmarks include [[Battell Chapel]], [[Beinecke Rare Book Library]], [[Harkness Tower]], [[Ingalls Rink]], Kline Biology Tower, [[Osborne Memorial Laboratories]], [[Payne Whitney Gymnasium]], [[Peabody Museum of Natural History]], Sterling Hall of Medicine, [[Sterling Law Buildings]], [[Sterling Memorial Library]], [[Woolsey Hall]], [[Yale Center for British Art]], [[Yale University Art Gallery]], and [[Yale Art & Architecture Building]].
 
Yale's secret society buildings (some of which are called "tombs") were built both to be private yet unmistakable. A diversity of architectural styles is represented: [[Berzelius (secret society)|Berzelius]], [[Donn Barber]] in an austere cube with classical detailing (erected in 1908 or 1910); [[Book and Snake]], Louis R. Metcalfe in a [[Greek Ionic]] style (erected in 1901); [[Elihu (secret society)|Elihu]], architect unknown but built in a [[American colonial architecture|Colonial]] style (constructed on an early 17th century foundation although the building is from the 18th century); [[Mace and Chain]], in a late colonial, early [[Victorian fashion|Victorian style]] (built in 1823). Interior moulding is said to have belonged to [[Benedict Arnold]]; [[Manuscript Society]], King Lui-Wu with Dan Kniley responsible for landscaping and [[Josef Albers]] for the brickwork intaglio mural. Building constructed in a [[mid-century modern]] style; [[Scroll and Key]], [[Richard Morris Hunt]] in a Moorish- or Islamic-inspired [[Beaux-Arts architecture|Beaux-Arts style]] (erected 1869–70); [[Skull and Bones]], possibly [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] or [[Henry Austin (architect)|Henry Austin]] in an [[Egyptian Revival|Egypto-Doric style]] utilizing [[Brownstone]] (in 1856 the first wing was completed, in 1903 the second wing, 1911 the [[Neo-Gothic]] towers in rear garden were completed); [[St. Elmo (secret society)|St. Elmo]], (former tomb) [[Kenneth MacKenzie Murchison|Kenneth M. Murchison]], 1912, designs inspired by Elizabethan manor. Current location, brick colonial; and [[Wolf's Head (secret society)|Wolf's Head]], [[Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue]] (erected 1923-4).
 
<div align=center>
<gallery>
File:SML-Starr-Reading-Room.jpg|The Starr Reading Room
 
File:Yale Harkness Tower.JPG|Harkness Tower
 
File:Yale-library-counter.jpg|The Library Circulation Desk
File:Memorial Chapel on Yale University's Old Campus.jpg|Memorial Chapel on Yale's Old Campus
File:Steinbach Hall.jpg|The Yale School of Management
File:Yale Art and Architecture Building, October 20, 2008.jpg|Yale School of Architecture
File:Kroon Hall exterior - 1.jpg|Yale School of Forestry
File:Old_campus2.jpg|Connecticut Hall
 
File:Yale_Peabody_Museum_2.JPG|Yale Peabody Museum
File:Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg|The Yale Bowl
</gallery></div>
 
===Campus safety===
In addition to the Yale University Police Department, founded in 1894,<ref>{{cite web
| title = Yale University Police Department
| url = http://www.yale.edu/police/
| accessdate =January 5, 2010}}</ref> a variety of safety services are available including blue phones, a [[safety escort]], and a shuttle service.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Yale University Department of Security
| url = http://www.yalesecurity.yale.edu/services.html
| accessdate =January 5, 2010}}</ref>
 
In the 1970s and 1980s, [[Connecticut locations by per capita income|poverty]] and [[violent crime]] rose in New Haven, dampening Yale's student and faculty recruiting efforts.<ref>AJ Giannini. Life, love, death and prestige in New Haven. Neon. 27:113–116, 1984.</ref> Between 1990 and 2006, New Haven's crime rate fell by half, helped by a community policing strategy by the New Haven police and Yale's campus became the safest among the Ivy League and other peer schools.<ref>Office of Post-Secondary Education: [http://www.ope.ed.gov/security/Search.asp "Security search."], Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref> Nonetheless, across the board, the city of New Haven has retained the highest levels of crime of any Ivy League city for more than a decade.<ref>''City-Data.com:[http://www.city-data.com/city/New-Haven-Connecticut.html], Retrieved December 4, 2010.</ref>
 
Between 2002 and 2004, Yale reported 14 violent crimes ([[homicide]], aggravated [[assault]], or [[Sex offender|sex offenses]]); in comparison, Harvard reported 83 such incidents, Princeton 24, and [[Stanford University|Stanford]] 54. The incidence of nonviolent crime ([[burglary]], [[arson]], and [[motor vehicle theft]]) was also lower than most of its peer schools.
 
In 2004 a national non-profit watchdog group called Security on Campus filed a complaint with the [[U.S.&nbsp;Department of Education]], accusing Yale of under-reporting rape and sexual assaults.<ref>''[[Yale Daily News]]'': [http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/13257 "Panel questions way University handles sex crimes"], Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref><ref>''[[Yale Daily News]]'': [http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/11115 " Yale may not report all crimes"], Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref>
 
==Academics==
 
===Admissions===
[[File:Sterling Memorial Library 2, September 1, 2008.jpg|Sterling Memorial Library|upright|thumb|Yale University's [[Sterling Memorial Library]], as seen from [[Maya Lin|Maya Lin's]] sculpture, ''Women's Table''. The sculpture records the number of women enrolled at Yale over its history; female undergraduates were not admitted until 1969.]]
 
For the Class of 2016, Yale accepted 1,975 students out of a record 28,975 total applications, hitting a record-low acceptance rate of 6.8%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2012/mar/29/yale-offers-admission-1975-applicants/?cross-campus|title=Yale University Class of 2016 Admission Rate|accessdate=March 29, 2012}}</ref>
 
The university is one of only seven institutions of higher education in the world that is [[need blind]] and full-need to all of its applicants, including international students.<ref>[http://www.yale.edu/sfas/finaid/finaid-information/philosophy.html/ Yale University Financial Aid Policies]{{dead link|date=December 2011}}</ref> Through its program of need-based financial aid, Yale commits to meet the full demonstrated financial need of all applicants, and more than half of Yale students receive financial assistance. Most financial aid is in the form of grants and scholarships that do not need to be paid back to the university, and the average scholarship for the 2011–2012 school year was $35,400. More than 750 students in Yale College are expected to have $0 parental contribution.
 
Half of all Yale undergraduates are women, more than 30% are [[ethnic minority|minorities]], and 8% are [[international student]]s. Fifty-five percent attended public schools and 45% attended private, religious, or international schools.<ref name="2010 stats">''[[Yale Daily News]]'': [http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/17694 "Diverse class of 2010 arrives in Elm City."]. Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref> In addition, Yale College admits a small group of nontraditional students each year, through the [[Eli Whitney Students Program]].
 
===Collections===
[[File:Le café de nuit (The Night Café) by Vincent van Gogh.jpeg|thumb|''[[The Night Café]]'', Vincent van Gogh, 1888, [[Yale University Art Gallery|Yale Art Gallery]].]]
[[Yale University Library]], which holds over 12 million volumes, is the second-largest university collection in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ala.org/ala/alalibrary/libraryfactsheet/alalibraryfactsheet22.cfm|title=ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 22 – The Nation's Largest Libraries|publisher=American Library Association|accessdate=February 19, 2008| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080218115521/http://www.ala.org/ala/alalibrary/libraryfactsheet/alalibraryfactsheet22.cfm| archivedate = February 18, 2008}}</ref> The main library, [[Sterling Memorial Library]], contains about 4&nbsp;million volumes, and other holdings are dispersed at subject libraries.
 
Rare books are found in a number of Yale collections. The [[Beinecke Rare Book Library]] has a large collection of rare books and manuscripts. The [[Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library]] includes important historical medical texts, including an impressive collection of rare books, as well as historical medical instruments. The [[Lewis Walpole Library]] contains the largest collection of 18th‑century British literary works. The [[Elizabethan Club]], technically a private organization, makes its Elizabethan folios and first editions available to qualified researchers through Yale.
 
Yale's museum collections are also of international stature. The [[Yale University Art Gallery]] is the country's first university-affiliated art museum. It contains more than 180,000 works, including old masters and important collections of modern art, in the Swartout and Kahn buildings. The latter, [[Louis Kahn]]'s first large-scale American work (1953), was renovated and reopened in December 2006. The [[Yale Center for British Art]], the largest collection of British art outside of the UK, grew from a gift of [[Paul Mellon]] and is housed in another Kahn-designed building.
 
The [[Peabody Museum of Natural History]] in New Haven is used by school children and contains research collections in anthropology, archaeology, and the natural environment. The [[Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments]], affiliated with the Yale School of Music, is perhaps the least well-known of Yale's collections, because its hours of opening are restricted.
 
The museums also house the artifacts brought to the United States from [[Peru]] by Yale history professor [[Hiram Bingham III|Hiram Bingham]] in his expedition to [[Machu Picchu]] in 1912 – when the removal of such artifacts was legal. Peru would now like to have the items returned; Yale has so far declined.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://opa.yale.edu/opa/mpi/MP-EnCaja-English-20080626.pdf |title=Machu Picchu in a Box |format=PDF |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> In November 2010, a Yale University representative agreed to return the artifacts to a Peruvian university.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/11/20/peru.yale.artifacts/index.html?hpt=T2|title=CNN: "Peru's president: Yale agrees to return Incan artifacts" | date=November 20, 2010}}</ref>
 
===University rankings===
{{Infobox US university ranking
| ARWU_W = 11
| ARWU_N =9
| ARWU_SCI =22
| ARWU_LIFE =10
| ARWU_MED =21
| ARWU_SOC =8
| EC = 27
| FT =19
| QS_W =4
| THES_W = 10
| THES_N =2
| USNWR_NU = 3
| CGC_NU = 6
| USNWR_Bus = 10
| USNWR_Law = 1
| USNWR_Medr = 6
| USNWR_Eng = 40
| Wamo_NU =23
| WSJ =8
| Forbes =5
| Forbes_Bus =10
}}
The ''[[U.S. News & World Report]]'' ranked Yale third among national universities in 2012, as it has for each of the past fifteen years, in every case behind, in either order or tied, Princeton and Harvard.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/national-universities-rankings |title=National University Rankings – Best Colleges 2011 |publisher=[[US News and World Report]] |accessdate=January 5, 2011}}</ref> It was ranked fourth in the 2011 [[QS&nbsp;World University Rankings]] and tenth in the 2010 [[Times Higher Education World University Rankings]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2011 |title=QS World University Rankings |publisher=Topuniversities |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref><ref name="World University Rankings">{{cite web |url= http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2010-2011/top-200.html |title=World University Rankings|year=2010 |publisher=The Times Higher Educational Supplement |accessdate=September 16, 2010}}</ref> (In 2010 [[Times Higher Education World University Rankings]] and [[QS World University Rankings]] parted ways to produce separate rankings.) Yale had featured in the top five for each of the past four years. The same ranking also named Yale as the fifth best university in the world for arts and humanities. Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s [[Academic Ranking of World Universities]], placed Yale at 11 in 2010. ARWU also ranked Yale 25th in Natural Sciences and Mathematics, 76–100th in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences, 9th in Life and Agriculture Sciences, 21st in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy, and 8th in Social Sciences worldwide.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.arwu.org/Institution.jsp?param=Yale%20University |title=&#124;Yale University |publisher=Arwu.org |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
 
==Faculty, research, and intellectual traditions==
The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of [[doctorate|doctoral degree]] recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.<ref>[http://web.centre.edu/ir/student/OverallBaccOrigins.pdf Centre.edu] "Baccalaureate Origins Peer Analysis 2000, Center College."</ref>
 
Yale's English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the [[New Criticism]] movement. Of the New Critics, [[Robert Penn Warren]], [[W.K. Wimsatt]], and [[Cleanth Brooks]] were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American [[deconstruction]]. [[Jacques Derrida]], the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called "[[Yale school (deconstruction)|Yale School]]". These included [[Paul de Man]] who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, [[J.&nbsp;Hillis Miller]], [[Geoffrey Hartman]] (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and [[Harold Bloom]] (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale's history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians [[C.&nbsp;Vann Woodward]] and [[David Brion Davis]] are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of [[American South|southern]] historians; likewise, [[David Montgomery (historian)|David Montgomery]], a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale's Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th&nbsp;century. The ''Journal of Music Theory'' was founded there in 1957; [[Allen Forte]] and [[David Lewin]] were influential teachers and scholars.
 
Since summer 2010, Yale has also been host to [[Yale Publishing Course]].
 
==Campus life==
Yale is a medium-sized research university, most of whose students are in the graduate and professional schools. Undergraduates, or Yale College students, come from a variety of ethnic, national, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Of the 2010–2011 freshman class, 10% are non‑U.S. citizens, while 54% went to public high schools.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/oir/factsheet.html#Yale%20College%20Student%20Body%20Characteristics |title=Yale Factsheet |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
Yale is also an open campus for the [[gay community]].<ref>{{Cite news
| last = Editors
| first = The
| author-link =
| last2 =
| first2 =
| author2-link =
| title = Why they call Yale the "Gay Ivy"
| newspaper = Yale Alumni Magazine
| page = 33
| date = July/August 2009
| url =
| postscript = <!--None--> }}</ref><ref>{{Cite news
| last = Chauncey
| first = George
| author-link =
| last2 =
| first2 =
| author2-link =
| title = Gay at Yale: How things changed
| newspaper = Yale Alumni Magazine
| pages = 32–43
| date = July/August 2009
| url =
| postscript = <!--None--> }}</ref> Its active LGBT community first received wide publicity in the late 1980s, when Yale obtained a reputation as the "gay Ivy", due largely to a 1987 ''[[Wall Street Journal]]'' article written by Julie V. Iovine, an alumna and the spouse of a Yale faculty member. During the same year, the University hosted a national conference on gay and lesbian studies and established the Lesbian and Gay Studies Center.<ref>{{cite news|newspaper=The New York Times|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1987/10/21/nyregion/after-dispute-yale-planning-a-conference-on-gay-studies.html|title=After Dispute, Yale Planning A Conference on Gay Studies|agency=Associated Press|date=October 21, 1987}}</ref> The slogan "One in Four, Maybe More" was coined by the campus gay community. While the community in the 1980s and early 1990s was very activist, today most LGBT events have become part of the general campus social scene.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://jaydixit.com/writing/gayatyale.htm|title=To Be Gay at Yale|work=Rolling Stone|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref> For example, the annual LGBT Co-op Dance attracts straight as well as gay students.
 
===Residential colleges===
{{Main|Residential colleges of Yale University}}
Yale has a system of 12 [[residential college]]s, instituted in 1933 through a grant by Yale graduate [[Edward S. Harkness]], who admired the college systems at Oxford and Cambridge. Each college has a Dean, Master, affiliated faculty, and resident Fellows. Each college also features distinctive architecture, secluded courtyards, a commons room, meeting rooms/classrooms, and a dining hall; in addition some have chapels, libraries, [[squash (sport)|squash]] courts, pool tables, short order dining counters, cafes, or darkrooms. Each college at Yale offers its own seminars, social events, and Master's Teas, and most of them are open to students from other residential colleges. However, Yale remains a unitary university, while Oxford and Cambridge colleges are self-governed charitable institutions in their own right.
 
All of Yale's 2,000 undergraduate courses are open to members of any college.
 
The dominant architecture of the residential colleges is [[Neo-Gothic]], in line with the characteristic architecture of the university. Several colleges have other period architecture, such as [[Georgian architecture|Georgian]] and [[Federal architecture|Federal]], and the two most recent ([[Morse College|Morse]] and [[Ezra Stiles College|Ezra Stiles]]) have modernist concrete exteriors.
 
Students are assigned to a residential college in their freshman year. Only two residential colleges ([[Silliman College|Silliman]] and [[Timothy Dwight College|Timothy Dwight]]) house freshmen. The majority of on-campus freshmen live on the "[[Old Campus]]", an extensive quadrangle formed by older buildings. Each residential college has its own dining hall, but students are permitted to eat in any residential college dining hall or the large dining facility called "Commons".
 
Residential colleges are named for important figures or places in university history or notable alumni.
 
<div align=center>
<gallery>
File:Berkeley_College_(South)_at_Yale.jpg|Berkeley College
File:Branford In The Winter.jpg|Branford College
File:Yale4912.JPG|Calhoun College
File:Dport.jpg|Davenport College
File:Jonathan Edwards College Winter 2004.jpg|Jonathan Edwards College
File:MainCourtyard.jpg|Trumbull College
</gallery></div>
 
====List of residential colleges====
 
This is a list of residential colleges at Yale.<ref>Yale University: [http://www.yale.edu/admit/freshmen/residential_life/index.html "Undergraduate Residential Life."]. Retrieved April 10, 2007.</ref>
# [[Berkeley College (Yale)|Berkeley College]], named for the Rt. Rev. [[George Berkeley]] (1685–1753), early benefactor of Yale.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/berkeley/ |title=Berkeley College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Branford College]], named for [[Branford, Connecticut]], where Yale was briefly located.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/branford/ |title=Branford College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Calhoun College]], named for [[John C. Calhoun]], vice-president and influential member of Congress of the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/calhoun/ |title=Calhoun College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Davenport College]], named for Rev. [[John Davenport (clergyman)|John Davenport]], the founder of New Haven. Often called "D'port".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/davenport/ |title=Davenport College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Ezra Stiles College]], named for the Rev. [[Ezra Stiles]], a president of Yale. Generally called "Stiles," despite an early-1990s crusade by then-master [[Traugott Lawler]] to preserve the use of the full name in everyday speech. Its buildings were designed by [[Eero Saarinen]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ezrastilescollege.org/ |title=Ezra Stiles College Home Page |publisher=Ezrastilescollege.org |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Jonathan Edwards College]], named for theologian, Yale alumnus, and Princeton co-founder [[Jonathan Edwards (theology)|Jonathan Edwards]]. Generally called "J.E." The oldest of the residential colleges, J.E. is the only college with an independent endowment, the Jonathan Edwards Trust.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/je/ |title=Jonathan Edwards College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Morse College]], named for [[Samuel F. B. Morse]], inventor of [[Morse code]] and the [[telegraph]]. Also designed by [[Eero Saarinen]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/morse/ |title=Morse College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Pierson College]], named for Yale's first rector, [[Abraham Pierson]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/pierson/ |title=Pierson College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref> A statue of [[Abraham Pierson]] stands on Yale's Old Campus.<ref>Pierson History. http://pierson.yalecollege.yale.edu/history. Retrieved on Nov 7, 2011</ref>
# [[Saybrook College]], named for [[Old Saybrook, Connecticut]], the town in which Yale was founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/saybrook/ |title=Saybrook College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |date=November 30, 2011 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Silliman College]], named for noted scientist and Yale professor [[Benjamin Silliman]]. About half of its structures were originally part of the [[Sheffield Scientific School]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/sm/ |title=Silliman College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Timothy Dwight College]], named for the two Yale presidents of that name, [[Timothy Dwight IV]] and [[Timothy Dwight V]]. Often abbreviated "T.D."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/td/ |title=Timothy Dwight College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |date=October 6, 2009 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
# [[Trumbull College]], named for [[Jonathan Trumbull]], first Governor of Connecticut.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/trumbull/ |title=Trumbull College Home Page |publisher=Yale.edu |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
<br />
In 1998, Yale launched a series of extensive renovations to the older residential buildings, which in many decades of existence had seen only routine maintenance and incremental improvements to plumbing, heating, and electrical and network wiring. Many of these renovations have now been completed, and among other improvements, renovated colleges feature newly built basement facilities including snack bars called "butteries," game rooms, theaters, athletic facilities, fine arts studios, and music practice rooms.
 
In June 2008, President Levin announced that the Yale Corporation had authorized the construction of two new residential colleges, scheduled to open in 2013. The additional colleges, to be built in the northern part of the campus, will allow for expanded admission and a reduction of crowding in the existing residential colleges.<ref>Yale University Office of Public Affairs: [http://opa.yale.edu/news/article.aspx?id=5868 "Yale to Establish Two New Residential Colleges."]. Retrieved June 7, 2008.</ref> Designs have been released, and some public controversy has surfaced over Yale's decision to demolish a number of historic buildings on the site, including a recently constructed library, in order to clear it for the $600&nbsp;million new structures.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://downtownnewhaven.blogspot.com/2009/08/demolition-date-approaches-for-new.html |title=Design New Haven: Demolition Date Approaches for New Residential College Site: Preservation Issues Spark Appeals to Yale |publisher=Downtownnewhaven.blogspot.com |date=August 29, 2009 |accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref>
 
===Student organizations===
{{Main|List of Yale University student organizations}}
 
The university hosts a variety of student journals, magazines, and newspapers. The latter categories include the ''[[Yale Daily News]]'', which was first published in 1878, the weekly ''[[Yale Herald]]'', published since 1986, and ''[[The Yale Record]]'', which was established in 1872 and is America's oldest college humor magazine. Dwight Hall, an independent, non-profit community service organization, oversees more than 2,000 Yale undergraduates working on more than 70 community service initiatives in New Haven. The Yale College Council runs several agencies that oversee campus wide activities and student services. The [[Yale Dramatic Association]] and Bulldog Productions cater to the theater and film communities, respectively. In addition, the [http://www.yaledramacoalition.org Yale Drama Coalition] serves to coordinate between and provide resources for the various Sudler Fund sponsored theater productions which run each weekend.
 
[[The Yale Political Union]] is advised by alumni political leaders such as [[John Kerry]] and [[George Pataki]]. The [[Yale International Relations Association]] functions as the umbrella organization for the top-ranked Model UN team.
 
The campus also includes several [[fraternities and sororities]]. The campus features at least 18 [[a&nbsp;cappella]] groups, the most famous of which is [[The Whiffenpoofs]], who are unusual among college singing groups in being made up solely of senior men.
 
Yale's [[secret society|secret societies]] include [[Skull and Bones]], [[Scroll and Key]], [[Wolf's Head (secret society)|Wolf's Head]], [[Book and Snake]], [[Elihu (secret society)|Elihu]], [[Berzelius (secret society)|Berzelius]], [[St. Elmo (secret society)|St.&nbsp;Elmo]], [[Manuscript Society|Manuscript]], and [[Mace and Chain]]. The two oldest existing honor societies are the [[Aurelian Honor Society|Aurelian]] (1910) and the Torch Honor Society (1916).<ref>http://www.library.yale.edu/mssa/YHO/ExtracurricularandSocialOrganizations.pdf</ref>
 
The [[Elizabethan Club]], a social club, has a membership of undergraduates, graduates, faculty and staff with literary or artistic interests. Membership is by invitation. Members and their guests may enter the "Lizzie's" premises for conversation and tea. The club owns first editions of a Shakespeare Folio, several Shakespeare Quartos, a first edition of Milton's ''[[Paradise Lost]]'', among other important literary texts.
 
===Traditions===
Yale seniors at graduation smash clay pipes underfoot to symbolize passage from their "[[Bright College Years|bright college years]]".<ref>{{cite news|title=Singing the Blues at Yale|first=Thomas|last=Toch|publisher=US News & World Report|date=June 8, 1992}}</ref> ("Bright College Years," the University's alma mater, was penned in 1881 by [[Henry Strong Durand|Henry Durand]], Class of 1881, to the tune of ''[[Die Wacht am Rhein]]''.) Yale's student tour guides tell visitors that students consider it good luck to rub the toe of the statue of [[Theodore Dwight Woolsey]] on Old Campus. Actual students rarely do so.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/98_03/talltales.html|title=Yale's Tallest Tales|first=Mark Alden|last=Branch|journal=Yale Alumni Magazine|date=March 1998}}</ref> In the second half of the twentieth century [[Bladderball]], a campus-wide game played with a large inflatable ball, became a popular tradition but was banned by administration due to safety concerns. In spite of administration opposition, students revived the game in 2009 and 2011, but its future remains uncertain.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2011/oct/10/bladderball-reemerges-brief-game/|title=THE NEWS WINS BLADDERBALL|first=Gavan|last=Gideon|first=Ben| last=Prawdzik|publisher=Yale Daily News|date=October 10, 2011}}</ref>
 
==Athletics==
 
[[File:Walter Camp Gate 1.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Walter Camp]] Gate at the Yale Athletic Complex.]]
{{Main|Yale Bulldogs}}
Yale supports 35 varsity athletic teams that compete in the [[Ivy League]] Conference, the [[Eastern College Athletic Conference]], the [[New England Intercollegiate Sailing Association]]. Yale athletic teams compete intercollegiately at the [[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]] Division&nbsp;I level. Like other members of the Ivy League, Yale does not offer athletic scholarships.
 
Yale has numerous athletic facilities, including the [[Yale Bowl]] (the nation's first natural "bowl" stadium, and prototype for such stadiums as the [[Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum]] and the [[Rose Bowl (stadium)|Rose Bowl]]), located at The [[Walter Camp]] Field athletic complex, and the [[Payne Whitney Gymnasium]], the second-largest indoor athletic complex in the world.<ref>''[[Yale Herald]]'': [http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/frosh/2000/field/p78payne.html "House of Payne gets ready for the new millennium." Retrieved April 9, 2007.]</ref>
October 21, 2000, marked the dedication of Yale's fourth new boathouse in 157&nbsp;years of collegiate rowing. The [[Richard Gilder]] [[Boathouse]] is named to honor former Olympic rower Virginia Gilder&nbsp;'79 and her father Richard Gilder&nbsp;'54, who gave $4&nbsp;million towards the $7.5&nbsp;million project. Yale also maintains the [[Gales Ferry]] site where the heavyweight men's team trains for the [[Yale-Harvard Boat Race]].
 
Yale crew is the oldest collegiate athletic team in America, and won [[Olympics|Olympic Games]] [[Gold Medal]] for men's eights in 1924 and 1956. The [[Yale Corinthian Yacht Club]], founded in 1881, is the oldest collegiate sailing club in the world.
 
In 1896, Yale and [[Johns Hopkins]] played the first known [[ice hockey]] game in the United States<!-- ice hockey is not played on "soil" -->. Since 2006, the school's ice hockey clubs have played a commemorative game.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yale.edu/clubhockey/teamhistory.html |title=Yale Club Ice Hockey |publisher=Yale.edu |date=October 19, 2007 |accessdate=September 16, 2009}}</ref>
 
For kicks, between 1954 and 1982, residential college teams and student organizations played [[bladderball]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Muller |first=Eli |url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/university-news/2001/02/28/bladderball-30-years-of-zany-antics-dangerous-fun/ |title=Bladderball: 30 years of zany antics, dangerous fun |publisher=Yale Daily News |date=February 28, 2001 |accessdate=December 4, 2011}}</ref>
 
Yale students claim to have invented [[Frisbee]], by tossing empty [[Frisbie Pie Company]] tins.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2007/nov/05/local-pie-tin-first-frisbee-legend-holds/|title=Local pie tin first Frisbee, legend holds|publisher=Yale Daily News|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434|title=About Connecticut: General Description and Facts|publisher=Connecticut State Government|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref>
 
===Song===
Notable among the songs commonly played and sung at events such as [[graduation|commencement]], [[convocation]], alumni gatherings, and athletic games are the alma mater, "[[Bright College Years]]", and the Yale [[fight song]], "Down the Field."<!--Down the Field is NOT the Yale fight song-->
 
Two other fight songs, "Bulldog, Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale", written by [[Cole Porter]] during his undergraduate days, are still sung at football games. Another fight song sung at games is "[[Boola Boola]]". According to “College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology” published in 1998, “Down the Field” ranks as the fourth-greatest fight song of all time.<ref>{{cite web|title='Victory March' rated No. 1 college fight song |url=http://newsinfo.nd.edu/news/6427-victory-march-rated-no-1-college-fight-song/|publisher=University of Notre Dame News|accessdate=September 1, 2010}}</ref>
 
===Mascot===
The school mascot is "[[Handsome Dan]]", the known Yale [[bulldog]], and the Yale [[fight song]] (written by [[Cole Porter]] while he was a student at Yale) contains the [[refrain]], "Bulldog, bulldog, bow wow wow." The school color, since 1894, is [[Yale Blue]].<ref>(prior to 1894, Yale's color was green) (see: {{cite web|url=http://www.thenewjournalatyale.com/2002/10/true-blue/|title=True Blue|first=Ellen|last=Thompson|publisher=The New Journal|date=October 1, 2002|accessdate=January 4, 2012}})</ref> Yale's [[Handsome Dan]] is believed to be the first college [[mascot]] in America, having been established in 1889.<ref name = "YaleBulldogs">{{cite web | url = http://yalebulldogs.cstv.com/trads/mascot.html | title = History of the Yale Bulldog "Handsome Dan" | work = Yale Bulldogs | accessdate =June 8, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070605212605/http://yalebulldogs.cstv.com/trads/mascot.html |archivedate = June 5, 2007}}</ref>
 
Yale athletics are supported by the [[Yale Precision Marching Band]]. "Precision" is used here ironically; the band is a scatter-style band that runs wildly between formations rather than actually marching.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.yale.edu/yaleband/ypmb/faq.html |title= Yale Precision Marching Band Frequently Asked Questions|accessdate=December 14, 2009|quote= "The YPMB is one of twelve scatter-style marching bands in the country....Between formations we run around wildly.}}</ref> The band attends every home football game and many away, as well as most hockey and basketball games throughout the winter.
 
Yale intramural sports are also a significant aspect of student life. Students compete for their respective residential colleges, fostering a friendly rivalry. The year is divided into fall, winter, and spring seasons, each of which includes about ten different sports. About half the sports are coeducational. At the end of the year, the residential college with the most points (not all sports count equally) wins the Tyng Cup.
 
==Notable people==
 
===Benefactors===
Yale has had many financial supporters, but some stand out by the magnitude or timeliness of their contributions. Among those who have made large donations commemorated at the university are: [[Elihu Yale]]; [[Jeremiah Dummer]]; the Harkness family ([[Edward S. Harkness|Edward]], [[Anna Harkness|Anna]], and [[William Harkness|William]]); the [[Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library|Beinecke]] family (Edwin, Frederick, and Walter); [[John William Sterling]]; [[Payne Whitney]]; [[Joseph E. Sheffield]], [[Paul Mellon]], [[Charles B.&nbsp;G. Murphy]] and [[William K. Lanman]]. The Yale Class of 1954, led by [[Richard Gilder]], donated $70&nbsp;million in commemoration of their 50th&nbsp;reunion.<ref>{{cite news |first= Stephanie|last= Strom|title=$75,000 a Record Gift for Yale? Here's How |curly=y |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D05E7D81631F932A35755C0A9629C8B63&scp=1&sq=Yale%20class%20of%201954%20%24110%20million&st=cse|work= The New York Times |location= New York|id= |date= June 1, 2004|accessdate=November 22, 2008 |quote= }}</ref>
 
===Notable alumni and faculty===
{{Further|List of Yale University people|List of Yale Law School alumni}}
[[File:Streep san sebastian 2008 2.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Academy Award Winning Actress [[Meryl Streep]], [[Yale School of Drama]] class of 1975]]
[[File:William Howard Taft, Bain bw photo portrait, 1908.jpg|upright|thumb|President [[William Howard Taft]], graduated from Yale in 1878.]]
Yale has produced alumni distinguished in their respective fields. Among the best-known are U.S.&nbsp;Presidents [[William Howard Taft]], [[Gerald Ford]], [[George H.&nbsp;W. Bush]], [[Bill Clinton]] and [[George W. Bush]]; Italian Prime Minister [[Mario Monti]]; Supreme Court Justices [[Sonia Sotomayor]], [[Samuel Alito]] and [[Clarence Thomas]]; U.S.&nbsp;Secretaries of State [[Hillary Rodham Clinton]], [[Cyrus Vance]], and [[Dean Acheson]]; Democratic Presidential nominee [[John Kerry]]; authors [[Sinclair Lewis]], [[Stephen Vincent Benét]], and [[Tom Wolfe]]; lexicographer [[Noah Webster]]; inventors [[Samuel F.&nbsp;B. Morse]] and [[Eli Whitney]]; patriot and "first spy" [[Nathan Hale]]; theologian [[Jonathan Edwards (theologian)|Jonathan Edwards]]; Academy Award winning actors and directors [[Paul Newman]], [[Vincent Price]], [[Meryl Streep]], [[Jodie Foster]], [[Frances McDormand]], [[Angela Bassett]], [[Elia Kazan]], [[George Roy Hill]], [[Oliver Stone]], and [[Michael Cimino]]; Head of Rose Bruford College of Theatre and Performance in London [[Michael Earley]]; "Father of American football" [[Walter Camp]]; composers [[Charles Ives]] and [[Cole Porter]]; Peace Corps founder [[Sargent Shriver]]; child psychologist [[Benjamin Spock]]; sculptor [[Richard Serra]]; film critic [[Gene Siskel]]; television commentators [[Dick Cavett]] and [[Anderson Cooper]]; [[pundit (expert)|pundits]] [[William F. Buckley,&nbsp;Jr.]], and [[Fareed Zakaria]]; [[Time Magazine]] co-founder [[Henry Luce]]; President of Mexico [[Ernesto Zedillo]]; President of the Federal Republic of Germany [[Karl Carstens]]; Philippines President [[José Paciano Laurel]]; Nobel Laureate in Economics and popular book author [[Paul Krugman]]; inventor of the [[cyclotron]] and Nobel Laureate in Physics, [[Ernest Lawrence]]; director of the [[Human Genome Project]], [[Francis S. Collins]]; economist [[Irving Fischer]], "The Father of Monetarism"; mathematician and chemist [[Josiah Willard Gibbs]]; [[Morgan Stanley]] founder [[Harold Stanley]]; [[Boeing]] CEO [[James McNerney]]; [[FedEx]] founder [[Frederick W. Smith]]; Turkish prime minister [[Tansu Çiller]]; [[Time Warner]] president [[Jeffrey Bewkes]]; Electronic Arts co-founder [[Bing Gordon]]; architects [[Eero Saarinen]] and [[Norman Foster]].
 
==Yale in fiction and popular culture==
{{Further|List of Yale University people|Yale in popular culture}}
Yale University, one of the oldest universities in the United States, is a [[culture|cultural referent]] as an institution that produces some of the most elite members of society<ref name="isbn0-8014-3479-3">{{cite book |author=Thalmann, William G. |title=The swineherd and the bow: representations of class in the Odyssey |publisher=Cornell University Press |location=Ithaca, N.Y |year=1998 |isbn=0-8014-3479-3 |oclc= |accessdate=August 15, 2007}}</ref> and its grounds, alumni, and students have been prominently portrayed in fiction and U.S. popular culture. For example, [[Owen Johnson (writer)|Owen Johnson]]'s novel, ''Stover at Yale'', follows the college career of Dink Stover<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.yaleherald.com/archive/xxv/2.20.98/ae/book.html |title = Memoir demonstrates Yalies have always been crazy |first = Jenna |last = Baddeley |publisher = Yale Herald|location = New Haven, Connecticut |accessdate =January 27, 2012}}</ref> and [[Frank Merriwell]], the model for all later juvenile sports fiction, plays football, baseball, crew, and track at Yale while solving mysteries and righting wrongs.<ref>University of Georgia: [http://www.uga.edu/honors/curo/juro/2001_10_13/Turano6.html "The Rise of Intercollegiate Football and Its Portrayal in American Popular Literature."]. Retrieved April 9, 2007.</ref><ref>The text of ''Frank Merriwell at Yale'' is published online by [[Project Gutenberg]], [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11115/11115-h/11115-h.htm Gutenberg.org]</ref> Yale University was also mentioned in [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]]'s novel "[[The Great Gatsby]]". Nick Carraway and Tom Buchanan have both graduated from New Haven. The narrator (the former) has written a series of editorials for the ''Yale News'' and the following has been "one of the most powerful [[Defensive end|ends]] that ever played football at New Haven".
 
==Notes and references==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
==Further reading==
{{refbegin}}
* Bagg, Lyman H. ''Four Years at Yale'', New Haven, 1891.
* Blum, John Morton. ''A life with history'' (2004) 283pp, memoir of history professor and advisor to the president
* Brown, Chandos Michael. ''Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic.'' (1989). 377 pp.
* [[William F. Buckley, Jr.|Buckley, William F., Jr.]] ''[[God and Man at Yale]]'', 1951.
* Dana, Arnold G. ''Yale Old and New'', 78 vols. personal scrapbook, 1942.
* Deming, Clarence. ''Yale Yesterdays'', New Haven, [[Yale University Press]], 1915.
* Dexter, Franklin Bowditch. ''Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Yale: Yale College with Annals of the College History, 6 vols. New York, 1885–1912.''
* __________. (1901). [http://books.google.com/books?id=LvAKAAAAIAAJ&client=firefox-a ''Documentary History of Yale University: Under the Original Charter of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, 1701–1745.''] New Haven: [[Yale University Press]]
* Fitzmier, John R. ''New England's Moral Legislator: Timothy Dwight, 1752–1817'' (1998). 261 pp.
* French, Robert Dudley. ''The Memorial Quadrangle'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1929.
* Furniss, Edgar S. ''The Graduate School of Yale'', New Haven, 1965.
* Gilpen, Toni, et al. ''On Strike For Respect,'' (updated edition: [[University of Illinois Press]], 1995,)
* Holden, Reuben A. ''Yale: A Pictorial History'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1967.
* Kabaservice, Geoffrey. ''The Guardians: Kingman Brewster, His Circle, and the Rise of the Liberal Establishment,'' (2004). 573 pp.
* Kalman, Laura. ''Legal Realism at Yale, 1927–1960'' (1986). 314pp.
* Kelley, Brooks Mather. [http://books.google.com/books?id=B2aDRhohtx8C&client=firefox-a ''Yale: A History.''] New Haven: [[Yale University Press]], 1999. 10-ISBN 0-300-07843-9: 13-ISBN 978-0-300-07843-5; [http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/810552 OCLC 810552]
* Kingsley, William L. ''Yale College. A Sketch of its History'', 2 vols. New York, 1879.
* Mendenhall, Thomas C. ''The Harvard-Yale Boat Race, 1852–1924, and the Coming of Sport to the American College.'' (1993). 371 pp.
* [[Cary Nelson|Nelson, Cary]]. ''Will Teach for Food: Academic Labor in Crisis,'' Minneapolis, [[University of Minnesota Press]], 1997.
* Nissenbaum, Stephen, ed. ''The Great Awakening at Yale College'' (1972). 263 pp.
* Oren, Dan A. ''Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale,'' New Haven, Yale University Press, 1985.* Oviatt, Edwin. ''The Beginnings of Yale (1701–1726)'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1916.
* [[George Wilson Pierson|Pierson, George Wilson]]. ''Yale College, An Educational History (1871–1921)'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1952.
* __________, ''The Founding of Yale: The Legend of the Forty Folios'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1988.
* Pinnell, Patrick L. ''The Campus Guide: Yale University'', [[Princeton Architectural Press]], New York, 1999.
* Stevenson, Louise L. ''Scholarly Means to Evangelical Ends: The New Haven Scholars and the Transformation of Higher Learning in America, 1830–1890'' (1986). 221 pp.
* [[Vincent Scully|Scully, Vincent]] ''et al.'', eds. ''Yale in New Haven: Architecture and Urbanism''. New Haven: Yale University, 2004.
* [[Anson Phelps Stokes (philanthropist)|Stokes, Anson Phelps]]. ''Memorials of Eminent Yale Men'', 2 vols. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1914.
* Synnott, Marcia Graham. ''The Half-Opened Door: Discrimination and Admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900–1970'' (1979). 310 pp.
* Tucker, Louis Leonard. ''Connecticut's Seminary of Sedition: Yale College.'' Chester, Conn.: Pequot, 1973. 78 pp.
* Warch, Richard. ''School of the Prophets: Yale College, 1701–1740.'' (1973). 339 pp.
* Welch, Lewis Sheldon, and [[Walter Camp]]. ''Yale, her campus, class-rooms, and athletics'' (1900). [http://books.google.com/books?id=qy44AAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor:Welch+inauthor:Lewis+inauthor:Sheldon&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0 online]
* Whitehead, John S. ''The Separation of College and State: Columbia, Dartmouth, Harvard, and Yale, 1776–1876'' (1973). 262 pp.
* Wilson, Leonard G., ed. ''Benjamin Silliman and His Circle: Studies on the Influence of Benjamin Silliman on Science in America'' (1979). 228 pp.
* ''Yale, The University College (1921–1937)'', New Haven, Yale University Press, 1955.
{{refend}}
 
===Secret societies===
* [[Alexandra Robbins|Robbins, Alexandra]], ''Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power'', Little Brown & Co., 2002; ISBN 0-316-73561-2 (paper edition).
* [[Kris Millegan|Millegan, Kris]] (ed.), ''Fleshing Out Skull & Bones'', TrineDay, 2003. ISBN 0-9752906-0-6 (paper edition).
 
==External links==
{{Portal|University}}
{{wikiquote}}
*{{Commons-inline|Yale University}}
*{{LOCFC|yale/}}
* [http://www.yale.edu Official website]
* [http://business.yale.edu/map/ Campus map from Yale University website]
* {{Cite EB1922|Yale University|author=[[Anson Phelps Stokes (philanthropist)|Anson Phelps Stokes]]}}
* {{Cite EB1911|Yale University|short=x}}
 
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[[vi:Đại học Yale]]
[[zh:耶鲁大学]]
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