Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Σεβαστοκράτωρ»

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'''''Sebastokratōr''''' ({{lang-el|σεβαστοκράτωρ}}; [[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian]] and [[Serbian language|Serbian]]: Севастократор; both pronounced ''sevastokrator'') was a senior court title in the late [[Byzantine Empire]]. It was also used by other rulers whose states bordered the Empire or were within its sphere of influence ([[Bulgarian Empire]], [[Serbian Empire]]). The word is a [[compound (linguistics)|compound]] of "''[[sebastos]]''" ("venerable", the Greek equivalent of the [[Latin language|Latin]] ''[[Augustus (honorific)|Augustus]]'') and "''kratōr''" ("ruler", the same element as is found in "''[[autokrator|autokratōr]]''", "emperor"). The wife of a ''sebastokratōr'' was named '''''sebastokratorissa''''' (Greek: σεβαστοκρατόρισσα) in Greek or '''''sevastokratitsa''''' (Cyrillic: севастократица) in Serbian and Bulgarian.
 
==History==
{{see also|Byzantine court titles}}
The title was created by Emperor [[Alexios I Komnenos]] (r. 1081–1118) to honour his elder brother [[Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)|Isaac Komnenos]].<ref name="ODB">{{harvnb|Kazhdan|1991|p=1862}}.</ref> According to [[Anna Komnene]], Alexios did this to raise Isaac above the rank of ''[[Caesar (title)|Caesar]]'', which he had already promised to his brother-in-law, [[Nikephoros Melissenos]]. Anna Komnene compares the rank of ''sebastokratōr'' to "a second emperor", and also records that along with the ''Caesar'' a ''sebastokratōr'' was granted the right to wear a crown (but not the imperial diadem).<ref>[[Anna Komnene]]. ''[[Alexiad]]'', [[s:The Alexiad/Book III#Chapter IV|3.4]].</ref> During the [[Komnenian dynasty]] (1081–1185), the title continued to be the highest below that of Emperor until 1163, when Emperor [[Manuel I Komnenos|Manuel I]] created the title of ''[[Despot (court title)|despotēs]]''. During that period, it was given exclusively to members of the imperial family, chiefly younger sons of the emperor.<ref name="ODB"/>
 
According to the sources, the distinctive colour associated with the title was blue: the ''sebastokratōr''′s [[Byzantine dress|ceremonial costume]] included blue [[stockings]] and blue [[boots]]. In circa 1260, according to [[George Akropolites]], the ''sebastokratores'' who were members of the imperial family were distinguished from those who were not by having embroidered golden [[eagles]] on their shoes.<ref>{{harvnb|Macrides|2007|pp=350, 366–367}}.</ref> By the time of [[pseudo-Kodinos]] in the mid-14th century, the embroidered eagles on a red field were standard. According to Kodinos, the ceremonial costume also included a red [[tunic]] (''[[chlamys]]'') and crown (''stephanos'') of red and gold.<ref>{{harvnb|Parani|2003|pp=63, 67–69, 72}}.</ref> The ''sebastokratōr'' also had the prerogative of signing documents with a special blue [[ink]].<ref name="ODB"/>
 
==Bulgaria==
This title was also used in [[Serbia]] during the [[Raška (state)|Kingdom of Raška]] and during the [[Serbian Empire]] (1346–1371).
[[Kaloyan (sebastocrator)|Kaloyan]] inherited the title possibly from his father Aleksandar (d. after 1232), a son of [[Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria]] (r. 1189–1196).<ref name=bakalov>{{cite book |title=Електронно издание "История на България" |language=Bulgarian |last=Bakalov |first=Georgi |coauthors=Milen Kumanov |publisher=Trud, Sirma |location=Sofia |year=2003 |isbn=954528613X |chapter=КАЛОЯН (неизв.-след 1259)}}</ref>
 
==Serbia==
{{seealso|Serbian noble titles}}
This title was also usedadopted in the court of medieval [[Serbia]], duringunder the [[RaškaNemanjić (state)|dynasty]], the [[Kingdom of RaškaSerbia|Serbian Kings]] and during the [[Serbian Empire|Emperors]] (1217–1346; 1346–1371).
 
==List of holders==
{{incomplete list}}
*[[Aleksandar Asen]] (d. after 1232), Bulgarian prince
*[[Kaloyan (sebastocrator)|Kaloyan]] (fl. 1259), Bulgarian magnate, held Sofia
*[[Dejan (magnate)|Dejan]] (fl. 1346-1356), Serbian magnate, held Žegligovo and Preševo
 
*[[Alexios III Angelos]], Byzantine
*[[John Angelos (sebastokrator)|John Angelos]], Byzantine
*[[Sabas Asidenos]], Byzantine and Nicaean magnate
*[[Conon de Béthune]], French crusader
*[[Constantine Doukas of Thessaly]]
*[[John Doukas (sebastokrator)|John Doukas]], Byzantine
*[[Stephen Gabrielopoulos]], Byzantine
*[[John I Doukas of Thessaly]], Byzantine
*[[John II Doukas of Thessaly]], Byzantine
*[[Demetrios I Kantakouzenos]], Byzantine
*[[Andronikos Komnenos (son of John II)]]
*[[Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)]], Byzantine
*[[Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I)]], Byzantine
*[[Isaac Komnenos (son of John II)]], Byzantine
*[[Branko Mladenović]], Serbian
*[[Momchil]], brigand in Rhodopes
*[[Stefan the First-Crowned]], Serbian
*[[Jovan Oliver]], Serbian
*[[Constantine Palaiologos (half-brother of Michael VIII)]], Byzantine
*[[John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII)]], Byzantine
*[[Vlatko Paskačić]], Serbian
*[[John Petraliphas]], Byzantine
*[[Strez]], Bulgarian
 
==Gallery==
{{refend|2}}
 
[[Category:Sebastokrators| ]]
[[Category:Byzantine court titles]]
[[Category:Byzantine imperial titles]]
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