Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Μοχάμεντ Αλί Τζίνα»

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[[Αρχείο:Jinnah1945a.jpg|thumb|Ο Μοχάμεντ Αλί Τζίνα]]
'''O Μοχάμεντ Αλί Τζίνα''', (''મુહમ્મદ{{lang|ur|محمد અલીعلی જિન્ના''جناح}}, γεννημένος ως Μαχομεντάλι Τζιναμπάι, [[25 Δεκεμβρίου]] [[1876]] - [[11 Σεπτεμβρίου]] [[1948]]) ήταν νομικός, πολιτικός και ο ιδρυτής του Πακιστάν.<span class{{sfn|Ahmed|p="reference" id="cxcite_ref-FOOTNOTEAhmed239_1-0" rel="dc:references" contenteditable="false" data-sourceid="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAhmed239_1-0">[[#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAhmed239-1|<nowiki>[1]</nowiki>]]</span>239}} Ο Τζίνα ήταν ηγέτης του Πακιστάν από το 1947 μέχρι τον θάνατό του 1948. Ονομάζεται στοΣτο Πακιστάν επίσης ωςαποκαλείται ''Κουαίντ-ι-Αζάμ'' ([[Ούρντου γλώσσα|ούρντου]]&#x3A;<span dir="rtl" lang="ur"><span class="Nastaliq" style="font-size: 125%;قائد font-family:اعظم 'Jameel Noori Nastaleeq', 'Urdu Typesetting',Μέγας Ηγέτης'Noto Nastaliq Urdu', 'Hussaini Nastaleeq', 'AlQalam Taj Nastaleeq', IranNastaliq, 'Nafees Nastaleeq', 'Nafees Nastaleeq v1.01', Nafees, 'Pak Nastaleeq', 'PDMS_Jauhar', 'Alvi Lahori Nastaleeq';" title="Urdu Nastaliq">قائد اعظم</span></span>&#x200E; (Μέγας Ηγέτης) και ως Μπάμπα-ι-Καούμ ([[Ούρντου γλώσσα|ούρντου]]&#x3A;<span dir="rtl" lang="ur"><span class="Nastaliq" style="font-size: 125%;بابائے font-family:قوم 'Jameel Noori Nastaleeq', 'Urdu Typesetting', 'Noto Nastaliq Urdu', 'Hussaini Nastaleeq', 'AlQalam Taj Nastaleeq', IranNastaliq, 'Nafees Nastaleeq', 'Nafees Nastaleeq v1.01', Nafees, 'Pak Nastaleeq', 'PDMS_Jauhar', 'Alvi Lahori Nastaleeq';" title="Urdu Nastaliq">بابائے قوم</span></span>&#x200E; (Πατέρας του Έθνους'').Τα γενέθλια του είναι εθνική γιορτή στο Πακιστάν.<ref>{{cite web |url url= http://www.officeholidays.com/countries/pakistan/index.php |title title= National public holidays of Pakistan in 2013 |publisher publisher= Office Holidays |accessdate accessdate=22 April 2013-04-22 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/6G4PCyv0B | archivedate =22 April 2013-04-22 | deadurl = no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/12/25/news/national/nation-celebrates-quaid-e-azams-137th-birthday/ |title title= Nation celebrates Quaid-e-Azam's birthday | work = Pakistan Today | date = 25 Dec 2012 |accessdate accessdate=22 April 2013-04-22 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/6G4PO0mLF |archivedate archivedate=22 April 2013-04-22 | deadurl = no}}</ref>
 
== <span style="background-color: rgb(254, 252, 224);">Πρώτα χρόνια</span> ==
Γεννήθηκε ως Μαχομεντάλι Τζιναμπάι,<span class="reference" id="cxcite_ref-4" rel="dc:references" contenteditable="false" data-sourceid="cite_ref-4">{{efn|[[#cite_note-4Γκουτζαράτι γλώσσα|<nowiki>[lower-alpha 1Γκουτζράτι]</nowiki>]]</span> το 1876,<span class="reference" id="cxcite_ref-5" rel="dc:references" contenteditable="false"મહમદ data-sourceid="cite_ref-5">[[#cite_note-5|<nowiki>[lower-alphaઅલી 2]</nowiki>]]</span>ઝીણાભાઇ}} ως γιος του Τζιναμπάι Πούντζα και της συζύγου του Μιθιμπάι, σε ενοικιασμένο σπίτι του Καράτσι.<span class="cx-segment" data-segmentid="261"></span>
 
== <span style="background-color: rgb(254, 252, 224);">Αρρώστια και θάνατος</span> ==
[[Αρχείο:Quaid_e_Azam_Residency,_Ziarat,Pakistan.jpg|thumb|<span style="background-color: rgb(254, 252, 224);">O Τζίνα έζησε πολλές από τις τελευταίες ημέρες της ζωής του στην κατοικία Κουαίντ-ε-Αζάμ στο Ζιαράτ του Πακιστάν</span>]]
Ο Τζίνα, 20 χρόνια περίπου πριν το θάνατό του, αρρώστησε και μόνο στενοί του συγγενείς μπορούσαν να τον δουν. Η υγεία του επιβαρύθηνκε αρκετά από την προσπάθεια του να ανεξαρτητοποιήσει το Πακιστάν, και πριν 30 χρόνια όταν δούλευε κάπνιζε πάνω από 50 τσιγάρα την ημέρα.
 
 
== Σημειώσεις ==
{{notelist}}
<div class="reflist " id="cx1275" style="list-style-type: lower-alpha; min-height: 190px;" data-source="1275" data-cx-state="source" data-cx-weight="558" contenteditable="true" data-cx-draft="true">
<references group="lower-alpha" /></div> Το λήμμα μεταφράστηκε από την Αγγλική ΒΠ.
 
== Παραπομπές ==
{{Reflist|colwidth = 30em|refs = <ref name="Moini 20 December 2003">}}
Qasim Abdallah Moini (20 December 2003). {{Wayback |df=yes|date=20081007170324 |url=http://www.dawn.com/weekly/yworld/archive/031220/yworld3.htm |title=Remembering the Quaid }}. Dawn.com. "[I]t has been alleged in sections of the press that the Quaid was born not in this quarter of Karachi but in [[Jhirk]], located in Thatta district. But most historians and biographers go along with the official line&nbsp;..."
</ref>
 
== Πηγές ==
<ref name="Anjali Desai">
* {{cite book
| last = DesaiAhmed
| first = AnjaliAkbar S.
| year = 20071997
| title = Jinnah, Pakistan, and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin
| title = India Guide Gujarat
| publisher = Indian Guide PublicationsRoutledge
| location = London
| quote = In 1913, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the son of an affluent Gujarati merchant from Kathiawad, joined the League after leaving the Congress due to disagreements with Gandhiji.
| isbn = 978-0-9789517415-014966-2
| url = httphttps://books.google.com/books?id=gZRLGZNZEoECTB1PL-ViHrcC&pgprintsec=PA24&dq=muhammad+ali+jinnah+gujaratifrontcover#v=onepage&q=muhammad%20ali%20jinnah%20gujarati&f=false
| ref = {{sfnRef|Ahmed}}
| accessdate = 2 December 2010
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Mehmood p725">
Syed Qasim Mehmood (1998). ''Encyclopedia Pakistanica'', p. 725. Qadir Printers, Karachi.
</ref>
 
<ref name="Quaid on government spending">
{{cite news
| title = Quaid on government spending
| newspaper = Business Recorder
| date = 14 December 2011
| url = http://www.brecorder.com/top-news/284-muhammad-ali-jinnah/38813-quaid-on-government-spending-.html
| accessdate = 15 November 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="lawyer">
{{cite web
| title = The Lawyer: Bombay (1896–1910)
| first = Government of Pakistan
| last = Official website
| url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/lawyer3.htm
| accessdate = 20 April 2006
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060127232421/http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/lawyer3.htm
| archivedate = 27 January 2006
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="statesman">
{{cite web
| title = The Statesman: Jinnah's differences with the Congress
| first = Government of Pakistan
| last = Official website
| url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/politician7.htm
| accessdate = 20 April 2006
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060127234847/http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/politician7.htm
| archivedate = 27 January 2006
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Urdu Columns December 2010">
{{cite web
| publisher = Urdu Columns
| date = 24 December 2010
| title = Dina Jinnah, daughter of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
| url = http://www.urdu-columns.com/2010/12/dina-jinnah-daughter-of-quaid-e-azam.html
| accessdate = 3 May 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="HistoryToday">
{{cite journal
 
| last = Talbot
| first = Ian
| journal = History Today
| date = February 1984
| title = Jinnah and the Making of Pakistan
| url = http://www.historytoday.com/ian-talbot/jinnah-and-making-pakistan
| accessdate = 26 October 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="lawson">
{{cite web
| last = Lawson
| first = Alastair
| date = 10 August 2007
| title = South Asia &#124; Partitioning India over lunch
| publisher = BBC News
| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6926464.stm
| accessdate = 15 August 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Fatima Jinnah Official website">
{{cite web
| title = Profile of Fatima Jinnah
| publisher = Fatima Jinnah Official website
| url = http://fatimajinnah.com/index.php?page=profile
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Dawn">
{{cite web
| title = Dina seeks Jinnah House's possession
| date = 25 May 2005
| work = [[Dawn (newspaper)|Dawn]]
| url = http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/25/top14.htm
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20101029083102/http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/25/top14.htm
| archivedate = 29 October 2010
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Sitapati 2008">
{{cite news
| last = Sitapati
| first = Vinay
| date = 13 October 2008
| title = Muslim law doesn't apply to Jinnah, says daughter
| url = http://www.indianexpress.com/news/muslim-law-doesnt-apply-to-jinnah-says-daughter/372877/0
| work = The Indian Express
| accessdate = 22 April 2010
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="secularm">
{{cite web
| first = Khaled
| last = Ahmed
| date = 23 May 1998
| title = The secular Mussalman
| work = The Indian Express
| url = http://www.financialexpress.com/old/ie/daily/19980523/14350814.html
| accessdate = 4 May 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="shi3a">
{{cite book
|last = Nasr
|first = Vali
|title = The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future
| publisher =W. W. Norton & Co.
| location = New York
| year = 2006
| pages = 88–90
| isbn = 978-0-393-32968-1
| url = http://faroutliers.wordpress.com/2006/10/13/pakistans-transition-from-shia-to-sunni-leadership
| accessdate = 15 November 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Sunni">
{{cite news
|title = Was Jinnah a Shia or Sunni?
|date = 9 May 1998
|url =http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/may/09jinnah.htm
|publisher = [[United News of India]] via rediff.com
|accessdate = 15 November 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="greatest">
{{cite web
| last = Wolpert
| first = Stanley
| date = 22 March 1998
| title = Lecture by Prof. Stanley Wolpert
| publisher = humsafar.info
| url = http://www.humsafar.info/wolp02.php
| accessdate = 16 August 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Mehmood p869">
{{cite book
| first = Syed Qasim
| last = Mehmood
| year = 1998
| title = Encyclopedia Pakistanica
| page = 869
| publisher = Qadir Printers
| location = Karachi
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="HinduOnNet">
{{cite news
| last = Sekhar
| first = A. Saye
| title = Tower of harmony in Guntur
| work = The Hindu
| url = http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003090701152000.htm&date=2003/09/07/&prd=th&
| date = 7 September 2003
| accessdate = 15 November 2012
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Seervai p127">
{{cite book
| last = Seervai
| first = H. M.
| year = 2005
| page = 127
| title = Partition of India: Legend and Reality
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| isbn = 978-0-19-597719-6
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="advani">
{{cite web
| title = Pakistan expresses shock over Advani's resignation as BJP chief
| first = Hindustan Times
| last = Online edition
| url = http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1391007,001300270001.htm
| accessdate = 20 April 2006
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20050609004505/http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1391007,001300270001.htm
| archivedate = 9 June 2005
}}
</ref>
 
<ref name="Moore p529">
{{cite journal
| last = Moore
| first = R. J.
| year = 1983
| title = Jinnah and the Pakistan Demand
| journal = Modern Asian Studies
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| volume = 17
| issue = 4
| pages = 529–561
| jstor = 312235
| doi=10.1017/s0026749x00011069
}}
</ref>}}
 
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