Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Springer Science+Business Media»

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'''Springer Science+Business Media''' or '''Springer''' is a global [[publishing]] company that publishes books, [[e-book]]s and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.bloomberg.com/quote/648808Z:GR/profile |title=648808Z Profile & Executives - Springer Science+Business Media GmbH - Bloomberg |work=bloomberg.com|accessdate=14 November 2012}}</ref> Springer also hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, [[Springer Protocols]], and SpringerImages. Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://link.springer.com/search?facet-content-type=%22Book%22#close | title=Search Results (within Book) | publisher=Springer | work=SpringerLink | accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref> Springer has major offices in [[Berlin]], [[Heidelberg]], [[Dordrecht]], and [[New York City]].
 
On January 15, 2015, [[Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group]] / [[Nature Publishing Group]] and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger.<ref>[http://se.macmillan.com/Media/News/HOLTZBRINCK-PUBLISHING-GROUP-AND-BC-PARTNERS-ANNOUNCE--AGREEMENT-TO-MERGE-MAJORITY-OF-MACMILLAN-SCIENCE-AND-EDUCATION--WITH-SPRINGER-SCIENCE-BUSINESS-MEDIA/?taxId=145 "Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners Announce Agreement to Merge Majority of MacMillan Science and Education with Springer Science+Business Media"], Jan. 15, 2015.</ref> The transaction was concluded in May 2015 and a new joint venture company, Springer Nature, was formed, with Holtzbrinck having the majority 53% share and BC Partners retaining 47% interest in the company.<ref>{{cite news|title=Completed merger forms 'Springer Nature' |url=http://www.thebookseller.com/news/completed-merger-forms-springer-nature |language=en |author=Caroline Carpenter |publisher=The Bookseller |date=May 6, 2015 |accessdate=July 8, 2015 }}</ref>.
 
==History==
[[Julius Springer]] founded '''Springer-Verlag''' in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in just 30 years.<ref name=springer_history>"[http://www.springer.com/index.php?id=165 History]". Springer Science+Business Media.</ref><ref name=springer_chron>"[http://www.springer.com/index.php?id=199 Chronology]". Springer Science+Business Media.</ref> In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in [[New York]]. Offices in [[Tokyo]], [[Paris]], [[Milan]], [[Hong Kong]], and [[Delhi]] soon followed.
 
The academic publishing company '''BertelsmannSpringer''' was formed after [[Bertelsmann]] bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag in 1999.<ref name=springer_history/><ref name=poynder2003/> The British investment groups [[Cinven]] and [[Candover]] bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann in 2003.<ref name=poynder2003>Poynder, Richard. "[http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/nbReader.asp?ArticleId=16696 BertelsmannSpringer is Sold to Private Equity Firms]". ''Information Today''. May 27, 2003.</ref> They merged the company in 2004 with the [[Netherlands|Dutch]] publisher '''Kluwer Academic Publishers''' which they bought from [[Wolters Kluwer]] in 2002,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb021104-1.htm |title=Kluwer Academic Publishers Sold to Venture Capitalists |publisher=Infotoday.com |date= |accessdate=2014-08-15}}</ref> to form '''Springer Science+Business Media.'''
SpringerProtocols is home to a collection of protocols, recipes which provide step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments in research labs.
 
SpringerImages was launched in 2008 and offers a collection of currently 1.8 million images spanning science, technology, and medicine.
 
SpringerMaterials was launched in 2009 and is a platform for accessing the [[Landolt-Börnstein]] database of research and information on materials and their properties.
 
==Open access==
For some of its journals, Springer does not require its authors to transfer their copyrights, and allows them to decide whether their articles are published under an [[open access (publishing)|open-access]] license or in the traditional restricted license model.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.springer.com/open+access/open+choice?SGWID=0-40359-0-0-0 |title=Springer Open Choice |publisher=Springer.com |date= |accessdate=2014-08-15}}</ref> While open-access publishing typically requires the author to pay a fee for copyright retention, this fee is sometimes covered by a third party. For example, a national institution in Poland allows authors to publish in open-access journals without incurring any personal cost - but using public funds. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.springer.com/open+access/authors+rights/institutional+compliance?SGWID=0-176707-0-0-0 |title=Springer Open Choice for Polish Institutions |publisher=Springer.com |date= |accessdate=2014-08-15}}</ref>
Springer is a member of the [[Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association]].
 
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