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Το '''Australopithecus anamensis''' είναι είδος πιθήκου που έζησε πριν από 2 εκατομμύρια χρόνια. Σχεδόν εκατό ορυκτά δείγματα είναι γνωστά από τη [[Κένυα]]<ref name="M. G. Leakey, C. S. Feibel, I. MacDougall & A. Walker 565–571">{{cite journal|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/376565a0|title=New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya|last=Leakey|first=Meave G.|last2=Feibel|first2=Craig S.|date=17 August 1995|journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]|issue=6541|doi=10.1038/376565a0|volume=376|pages=565–571|bibcode=1995Natur.376..565L|pmid=7637803|last3=MacDougall|first3=Ian|author3-link=Ian McDougall (geologist)|last4=Walker|first4=Alan|author4-link=Alan Walker (anthropologist)|author-link=Meave G. Leakey}}</ref><ref name="Leakey et al., 1998">{{cite journal|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/29972|title=New specimens and confirmation of an early age for ''Australopithecus anamensis''|last=Leakey|first=Meave G.|last2=Feibel|first2=Craig S.|date=7 May 1998|journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]|issue=6680|doi=10.1038/29972|volume=393|pages=62–66|bibcode=1998Natur.393...62L|pmid=9590689|last3=MacDougall|first3=Ian|author3-link=Ian McDougall (geologist)|last4=Ward|first4=Carol|last5=Walker|first5=Alan|author5-link=Alan Walker (anthropologist)|author-link=Meave G. Leakey}}</ref> και την [[Αιθιοπία]],<ref name="WhiteEtal2006nature04629">{{cite journal|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/nature04629|title=Asa Issie, Aramis and the origin of ''Australopithecus''|last=White|first=Tim D.|last2=WoldeGabriel|first2=Giday|date=13 April 2006|journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]|issue=7086|doi=10.1038/nature04629|volume=440|pages=883889|bibcode=2006Natur.440..883W|pmid=16612373|last3=Asfaw|first3=Berhane|last4=Ambrose|first4=Stan|last5=Beyene|first5=Yonas|last6=Bernor|first6=Raymond L.|last7=Boisserie|first7=Jean-Renaud|last8=Currie|first8=Brian|last9=Gilbert|first9=Henry|first10=Yohannes|last10=Haile-Selassie|first11=William K.|last11=Hart|first12=Leslea J.|last12=Hlusko|first13=F. Clark|last13=Howell|first14=Reiko T.|last14=Kono|first15=Thomas|last15=Lehmann|first16=Antoine|last16=Louchart|first17=C. Owen|last17=Lovejoy|first18=Paul R.|last18=Renne|first19=Hauro|last19=Saegusa|first20=Elisabeth S.|last20=Vrba|first21=Hank|last21=Wesselman|first22=Gen|last22=Suwa}}</ref> representingαντιπροσωπεύοντας overπάνω από 20 individualsάτομα. Είναι γνωστό ότι ο ''A. anamensis'' είναι πρόγονος του ''A. afarensis''.<ref>{{cite journal|url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248406000352|title=Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record|last=Kimbel|first=William H.|last2=Lockwood|first2=Charles A.|journal=[[Journal of Human Evolution]]|issue=2|doi=10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003|year=2006|volume=51|pages=134–152|pmid=16630646|last3=Ward|first3=Carol V.|last4=Leakey|first4=Meave G.|author4-link=Meave G. Leakey|last5=Rake|first5=Yoel|last6=Johanson|first6=Donald C.}}</ref>
It is accepted that ''A. anamensis'' is ancestral to ''A. afarensis'' and continued an evolving lineage.<ref>{{cite journal|url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248406000352|title=Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record|last=Kimbel|first=William H.|last2=Lockwood|first2=Charles A.|journal=[[Journal of Human Evolution]]|issue=2|doi=10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003|year=2006|volume=51|pages=134–152|pmid=16630646|last3=Ward|first3=Carol V.|last4=Leakey|first4=Meave G.|author4-link=Meave G. Leakey|last5=Rake|first5=Yoel|last6=Johanson|first6=Donald C.}}</ref> Fossil evidence determines that the ''Australopithecus anamensis'' is the earliest hominin species in the [[Turkana Basin]].<ref name="pnas.org">{{cite journal|url=http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10501.full|title=Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins|last=Cerling|first=Thure E.|last2=Manthi|first2=Fredrick Kyalo|date=June 25, 2013|journal=[[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]]|accessdate=24 October 2014|issue=26|doi=10.1073/pnas.1222568110|volume=110|pages=10501–10506|bibcode=2013PNAS..11010501C|pmc=3696807|pmid=23733966|last3=Mbua|first3=Emma N.|last4=Leakey|first4=Louise N.|author4-link=Louise N. Leakey|last5=Leakey|first5=Meave G.|author5-link=Meave G. Leakey|last6=Leakey|first6=Richard E.|author6-link=Richard E. Leakey|last7=Brown|first7=Francis H.|last8=Grine|first8=Frederick E.|last9=Hart|first9=John A.|first10=Prince|last10=Kalemeg|first11=Hélène|last11=Roche|first12=Kevin T.|last12=Uno|first13=Bernard A.|last13=Wood}}</ref>
 
Μέχρι πρότινος είδη σαν τον A. robustus και τον A. boisei, πιστεύεται πως αποτελούσαν μέλη του ίδιου γένους των Αυστραλοπιθήκων. Παρόλα αυτά πρόσφατα δεδομένα υποδεικνύουν πως αποτέλεσαν ένα ξεχωριστό γένος, γεγονός που διαίρεσε τις αυστραλοπιθηκίνες σε δύο γένη: τον Αυστραλοπίθηκο (λεπτοφυείς αυστραλοπιθηκίνες), και τον Παράνθρωπο (Paranthropus) (εύρωστες αυστραλοπιθηκίνες).
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