Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Πάπας Βενέδικτος Η΄»

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'''Pope Benedict VIII''' ({{lang-la|Benedictus PP. VIII}}, {{lang-it|Benedetto VIII}}; ca. 980<ref>[http://www2.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1001.htm#Teofilatto Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church]</ref> – 9 April 1024) was the [[Pope|head]] of the [[Catholic Church]] from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024. He was born '''Theophylactus''' to the noble family of the [[counts of Tusculum]] (son of Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and brother of future [[Pope John XIX]]), descended from [[Theophylact, Count of Tusculum]], just as was his predecessor [[Pope Benedict VI]] (973–974).
 
Benedict VIII was opposed by an [[antipope]], [[Antipope Gregory VI|Gregory VI]], who compelled him to flee [[Rome]].<ref>{{cite book |first=Johann Lorenz |last=Mosheim |first2=James |last2=Murdock |title=Institutes of Ecclesiastical History |publisher=A. H. Maltby |year=1832 |pages=181–182 }}</ref> He was restored by [[Henry II of Germany]], whom he crowned [[Emperor]] on 14 February 1014. He remained on good terms with Henry for his entire pontificate.<ref>{{cite book |first=Peter |last=Lasko |title=Ars Sacra: 800–1200 |location= |publisher=Yale University Press |year=1994 |page=111 |isbn=0300060483 }}</ref> In Benedict VIII's pontificate the [[Saracens]] renewed their attacks on the southern coasts of [[Italy]]. They also burned [[Pavia]] and effected a settlement in [[Sardinia]].<ref>{{cite book |first=Ferdinand |last=Gregorovius |first2=Annie |last2=Hamilton |title=History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages |location= |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2010 |page=25 |isbn= }}</ref> The [[Normans]] also then began to settle in [[Italy]]. The Pope promoted peace in Italy by allying himself with the [[Normans]], orchestrating the [[Pisan–Genoese expeditions to Sardinia (1015–1016)|defeat of the Saracens in Sardinia]]<ref>{{cite book |first=Roger |last=Collins |title=Caliphs and Kings: Spain 796–1031 |location= |publisher=Blackwell Publishing |year=2012 |page=201 |isbn=9780631181842 }}</ref> and subjugating the [[Crescentii]]. In 1022, he held a [[synod]] at [[Pavia]] with the Emperor to restrain [[simony]] and [[incontinence (philosophy)|incontinence of the clergy]].<ref>{{cite book |first=Williston |last=Walker |title=A History of the Christian Church |publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons |year=1921 |page=218 }}</ref> The reformation sponsored by [[Cluny Abbey]] was supported by him, and he was a friend of its abbot, [[Odilo of Cluny|St. Odilo]].
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