Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Ουκρανία»

Ετικέτες: Επεξεργασία από κινητό Διαδικτυακή επεξεργασία από κινητό
 
===Η κρίση του 2014===
''Δείτε επίσης: [[Euromaidan]], [[Κρίση στην Κριμαία το 2014]], [[2014 Κρίση στηνστη Νοτιοανατολικήνοτιοανατολική Ουκρανία το 2014]]''
 
Το Νοέμβριο του 2013, ο Πρόεδρος Γιανουκόβιτς αρνήθηκε να υπογράψει την Συνθήκη σύνδεσης με τη [[Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση]], με αποτέλεσμα να ξεσπάσουν διαδηλώσεις στο Κίεβο με επίκεντρο την πλατεία Ανεξαρτησίας. Οι διαδηλωτές ζητούσαν την παραίτηση του προέδρου και της κυβέρνησής του, κατηγορώντας τους ότι εξυπηρετούν τα σχέδια της Ρωσίας, και απαιτούσαν την υπογραφή της Συνθήκης με την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Μετά τις 16 Ιανουαρίου 2014, τα γεγονότα πήραν βίαιη τροπή με αφορμή τη ψήφιση νόμων κατά των συγκεντρώσεων από την τότε κυβέρνηση. Οι αντικυβερνητικοί διαδηλωτές προχώρησαν σε καταλήψεις κυβερνητικών κτιρίων στο Κίεβο. Κατά τη διάρκεια των ταραχών από τις 18 έως τις 20 Φεβρουαρίου, σκοτώθηκαν 98 άτομα και τραυματίστηκαν χιλιάδες<ref>[http://www.iefimerida.gr/node/144133 Αιματοκύλισμα χωρίς τέλος στην Ουκρανία με πάνω από 100 νεκρούς -Ελπίδες από τις διαβουλεύσεις για πρόωρες εκλογές], iefimerida.gr</ref>. Στις 21 Φεβρουαρίου, ο Γιανουκόβιτς υπέγραψε συμφωνία με τους ηγέτες της Αντιπολίτευσης για τον τερματισμό της βίας και ανακοίνωσε πρόωρες εκλογές για τον Δεκέμβριο. Οι διαδηλωτές συνέχισαν να απαιτούν την παραίτησή του<ref>[http://www.iefimerida.gr/node/144307 Οι εθνικιστές της Ουκρανίας αποδοκιμάζουν τη συμφωνία: Τελεσίγραφο στον Γιανουκόβιτς να παραιτηθεί μέχρι το Σάββατο], iefimerida.gr</ref>. Στις 22 Φεβρουαρίου, το Ουκρανικό Κοινοβούλιο κήρυξε έκπτωτο τον Πρόεδρο Γιανουκόβιτς και προκήρυξε προεδρικές εκλογές για τις 25 Μαίου του 2014. Ο Βίκτορ Γιανουκόβιτς διέφυγε στη Ρωσία όπου έλαβε άσυλο<ref>[http://www.iefimerida.gr/node/145024 Ο Γιανουκόβιτς στη Ρωσία; -Ο Πούτιν του δίνει άσυλο], iefimerida.gr</ref>. Την εξουσία ανέλαβε προσωρινή κυβέρνηση συνεργασίας, αποτελούμενη από τα κεντροδεξιά κόμματα Μπατίβσκινα και УДАР, το ακροδεξιό Σβόμποντα, καθώς και διάφορους φιλοευρωπαϊκούς κοινοβουλευτικούς συνασπισμούς και ανεξάρτητους βουλευτές.<ref name=YGdSOT>[http://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/215293.html Rada speaker announces dissolution of parliamentary coalition], [[Interfax-Ukraine]] (24 July 2014)</ref> Ειδικά η συμμετοχή του Σβόμποντα προκάλεσε πολλά σχόλια, με διάφορους σχολιαστές να το θεωρούν ναζιστικό,<ref name=Likhachev>{{cite journal|last=Likhachev|first=Viacheslav|title=Right-Wing Extremism on the Rise in Ukraine|journal=Russian Politics and Law|date=September–October 2013|volume=51|issue=5|quote=In their propaganda, SNPU ideologues were more open, describing the confrontation with “Muscovite influence” as racial. SNPU publications proudly called the Ukrainian nation the “root of the white race.” Ukraine was viewed as an “outpost of European civilization” and Russia as an “Asiatic horde.” Ukraine—according to Andrii Parubii, one of the SNPU leaders (who later joined Our Ukraine)—must “confront the aggressiveness of the pernicious ideas of the Asiatic world, today embodied in Russia.” Alongside Russophobia, SNPU ideologues preached (and still preach) anti-Westernism: from their point of view, “internationalist Marxism and cosmopolitan liberalism are in fact two sides of the same coin.” I would add that all the ideological constructs formulated in SNPU publi- cations in the 1990s still characterize Svoboda’s current ideology. Although the party toned down its official rhetoric in the 2000s, it takes pride in the continuity of its history and the unchanging nature of its ideology}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Shekhovtsov |first=Anton |title=Right Wing Populism in Europe |year=2013 |publisher=Routledge |pages=251–2 |accessdate=28 February 2014 |chapter=17: From Para-Militarism to Radical Right-Wing Populism: The Rise of the Ukrainian Far-Right Party Svoboda.|quote=The Ukrainian National Assembly (UNA), KUN and Svoboda are also Russophobic and anti-semitic. Moreover, 'white racism’ is overtly or covertly inherent in the doctrines of the UNA, Svoboda and All-Ukrainian Party'New Force' (Nova Syla), and most evidently manifests itself through the parties’ anti-immigrant positions.}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Syal|first=Rajeev|title=Guardian Weekly: Shadow of racism over Euro 2012 finals: Black football fans face uncertain welcome in Ukrainian host city|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jun/01/euro-2012-ukraine-football-racism-sol-campbell|accessdate=28 February 2014|newspaper=The Guardian Weekly|date=1 June 2012|quote="Lviv's ruling party, Svoboda, whose slogan is "one race, one nation, one fatherland", has been variously described as fascist, neo-Nazi and extreme. Members prefer to say they are nationalists and friends of Marine Le Pen's Front National."}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Head of Israel-Ukraine association surprised at agreement signed by Ukrainian opposition and Svoboda|url=http://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/122966.html|accessdate=28 February 2014|newspaper=Ukraine General Newswire-Interfax News Agency|date=23 October 2012|quote="The head of the Israel-Ukraine inter-parliamentary association, Israel is Our Home Party MP Alex Miller, has said he does not understand why the Ukrainian opposition signed a coalition agreement with an "anti-Semitic" party - the Svo-boda All-Ukrainian Union… According to the [[Ukrainian Jewish Committee]], Svoboda is a fascist party, and its full name - the Social-National Party of Ukraine - was chosen in association with the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)."}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Weinthal|first=Benjamin|title=Wiesenthal ranks top 10 anti-Semites, Israel-bashers. Muslim Brotherhood's rise in Egypt catapults two religious figures into No. 1 spot|url=http://www.jpost.com/Jewish-World/Jewish-Features/Wiesenthal-ranks-top-10-anti-Semites-Israel-haters|accessdate=28 February 2014|newspaper=Jerusalem Post|date=28 December 2012|quote=The Wiesenthal Center also cited Oleg Tyagnibok (No. 5) from the fascist Ukranian Svoboda party. He urged purges of the approximately 400,000 Jews and other minorities living in the Ukraine and has demanded that the country be liber-ated from the "Muscovite Jewish Mafia." Ukrainian MP Igor Miroshnichenko was cited for anti-Jewish remarks as well: He called Ukrainian-born American ac-tress Mila Kunis a "zhydovka" (dirty Jewess).}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Spyer|first=Jonathon|title=Kiev Showdown|url=http://www.jpost.com/Jerusalem-Report/Jewish-World/Kiev-showdown-337679|accessdate=28 February 2014|newspaper=The Jerusalem Post|date=9 January 2014|quote=The far-right, anti-Semitic Svoboda party of Oleh Tyahnybok is also in evidence in the square. The third organized element is the Batkivschnya (Fatherland) party, which is close to Timoshenko.}}</ref><ref name=sternatlantic>{{cite news|last=Stern|first=David|title=What Europe Means to Ukraine's Protesters|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/12/what-europe-means-to-ukraines-protesters/282327/|accessdate=27 March 2014|newspaper=The Atlantic|date=13 December 2013|quote=But Svoboda’s positions are somewhat at odds with the EU’s ideals of tolerance and multiculturalism, to put it mildly: It is a driving force behind Ukraine’s anti-gay rights movement; the party’s platform supports distributing government positions to various ethnicities according to their percentage makeup of the population; and, despite recent claims to the contrary, it remains, at least among its leadership, a deeply anti-Semitic organization (one deputy in parliament has described the Holocaust as a “bright period” for Europe.)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Meyssan|first=Thierry|title=Who are the Nazis in the Ukrainian government?|url=http://www.voltairenet.org/article182428.html|publisher=voltairenet.org|accessdate=25/07/2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Hughes|first=Michael|title=The Neo-Nazi Question in Ukraine|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-hughes/the-neo-nazi-question-in_b_4938747.html|publisher=The Haffington Post - The Blog|accessdate=25/07/2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Μητροπούλου|first=Ειρήνη|title=Εχθροί του Πούτιν, νοσταλγοί του Χίτλερ|url=http://www.tovima.gr/world/article/?aid=551065|accessdate=28/07/2014|newspaper=Το Βήμα|date=21/12/2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Η κορδέλα-σύμβολο που μισούν οι ουκρανοί εθνικιστές|url=http://www.tovima.gr/world/article/?aid=593909|accessdate=28/07/2014|newspaper=Το Βήμα|date=09/05/2014}}</ref> και άλλους, όπως και η ίδια η ηγεσία του κόμματος, να το χαρακτηρίζουν εθνικιστικό αλλά όχι φασιστικό.<ref name=greyct>{{cite news|last=Grey|first=Stephen|title=In Ukraine, nationalists gain influence - and scrutiny|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-rt-us-ukraine-crisis-farright-insight-20140318,0,2590463.story|accessdate=27 March 2014|newspaper=The Chicago Tribune|date=18 March 2014|quote=Expert opinions on Svoboda in particular are divided. [[Per Anders Rudling]], an associate professor at Lund University in Sweden and researcher on Ukrainian extremists, has described Svoboda as "neo-fascist"… But Ivan Katchanovski, a political scientist at the University of Ottawa who has studied the far-right in Ukraine, disagreed that Svoboda was so extreme. "Svoboda is currently best described as a radical nationalist party, and not as fascist or neo-Nazi," he said. "It is now not overtly anti-Semitic." Andrew Srulevitch, director of European Affairs for the Anti-Defamation League, an international group based in the U.S. that monitors anti-Semites and other political extremists, said: "Svoboda has been disciplined in its messaging regarding Jews since the Maidan demonstrations started in November, but they have a history of anti-Semitic statements to overcome, and a clear political program of ethnic nationalism that makes Jews nervous." Oleh Tyahnybok, leader of Svoboda, described the row over his party as an "information war". He told Reuters: "Unfortunately, the information concerning Svoboda's radicalism is not true. It comes from European and Russian mass-media. They just wanted to create an image of horror, of extremists, anti-Semites and xenophobes, and started to write about our party some stupid things."|archiveurl=https://archive.is/R308t|archivedate=19 March 2014}}</ref><ref name=motyl1>{{cite news|last=Motyl|first=Alexander|title=Ukraine's Orange Blues|url=http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/alexander-j-motyl/experts-ukraine?utm_source=World+Affairs+Newsletter&utm_campaign=c8265504c4-March_21_2014_Blogs_Totten_Motyl&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f83b38c5c7-c8265504c4-294605021|accessdate=27 March 2014|newspaper=World Affairs Journal|date=20 March 2014|quote=Both Svoboda and Right Sector are on the right. They are decidedly not liberals—and some of them may be fascists—but they are far more like the Tea Party or right-wing Republicans than like fascists or neo-Nazis.}}</ref><ref name=shekheuroz>{{cite news|last=Shekhovtsov|first=Anton|title=From electoral success to revolutionary failure: The Ukrainian Svoboda party|url=http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2014-03-05-shekhovtsov-en.html|accessdate=27 March 2014|newspaper=Eurozine|date=5 March 2014|quote=...not only did Svoboda cooperate with several European radical rightwing parties (and, as noted above, it cooperated with the Front national even during the SNPU days), but also could not be considered a neo-Nazi party… The party, and especially its paramilitary wing called C14 under the leadership of the notorious neo-Nazi Yevhen Karas, became involved in a number of divisive activities. Displaying racist banners in the occupied Kyiv City State Administration, attacking journalists, volunteer medical workers and other Euromaidan activists, demolishing the Lenin monument, staging a torch-lit march commemorating controversial Ukrainian ultranationalist Stepan Bandera – all these activities damaged the unity, as well as the image, of Euromaidan.}}</ref><ref name=caryl>{{cite news|last=Caryl|first=Christian|title=Dropping the political F-Bomb|url=http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/03/14/dropping_the_political_f_bomb|accessdate=27 March 2014|newspaper=Foreign Policy|date=14 March 2014|quote=So do Ukrainian Freedom Party members or Venezuelan protesters qualify? Probably not. The former (see Tyahnybok, above) certainly qualify as ultra-rightwingers. The Freedom Party belongs to a European network of far-right organizations that includes France's National Front. This doesn't make them fascist, but it's certainly worrisome (especially now that Freedom holds four posts in the current interim government) -- and there's no reason why we shouldn't be able to analyze and discuss such problematic political views without being accused of playing into the hands of Moscow's propagandists. (If Ukraine truly aspires to be a part of the European political family, in fact, we should feel compelled to criticize such views just as we would those of any other European ultra-right parties. In 2012, well before the current crisis in Ukraine, the European Parliament denounced the Freedom Party for its "racist, anti-Semitic and xenophobic views.")}}</ref><ref name=shekhblog>{{cite web|last=Shekhovtsov|first=Anton|title=A comment on Cas Mudde's article "A new (order) Ukraine?"|url=http://anton-shekhovtsov.blogspot.de/2014/02/a-comment-on-cas-muddes-article-new.html#more|work=Personal Blog|publisher=Anton Shekhovtsov|accessdate=27 March 2014|date=28 February 2014|quote=...Svoboda may be more extreme than the French National Front or the Freedom Party of Austria, but it is probably less extreme than Jobbik, NPD, Golden Dawn, Tricolour Flame, BNP, etc...}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Katchanovski|first=Ivan|title=An Interview with Reuters Concerning Svoboda, the OUN-B, and other Far Right Organizations in Ukraine (March 4, 2014)|journal=Reuters|quote="Svoboda currently is best described as a radical nationalist party, and not as a Fascist or neo-Nazi. It is now not overtly anti-Semitic."|url=https://www.academia.edu/6327298/Interview_with_Reuters_re_Svoboda_the_OUN-B_and_other_Far_Right_Organizations_in_Ukraine_March_4_2014_FullText|accessdate=22 May 2014}}</ref>
 
Την 1η Μαρτίου, ο Πρόεδρος της Ρωσίας, [[Βλαντιμίρ Πούτιν]], έλαβε την έγκριση του ρωσικού κοινοβουλίου για την αποστολή ρωσικών στρατευμάτων στην Ουκρανία και συγκεκριμένα στη χερσόνησο της Κριμαίας[[Κριμαία]]ς. Τις επόμενες ημέρες στρατιώτες του Ρωσικού στρατού έθεσαν υπό τον έλεγχό τους το μεγαλύτερο μέρος της Κριμαίας <ref>[http://www.iefimerida.gr/node/145275 Σειρήνες πολέμου στην Ουκρανία: Ρωσική εισβολή στην Κριμαία με 2.000 στρατιώτες και δεκάδες αεροσκάφη], iefimerida.gr</ref>, ενώ η μεταβατική κυβέρνηση του Κιέβου κήρυξε γενική επιστράτευση, χαρακτηρίζοντας τις ρωσικές ενέργειες ως «κήρυξη πολέμου». Το τοπικό κοινοβούλιο της Κριμαίας προκήρυξε δημοψήφισμα για τις 16 Μαρτίου 2014 για την αυτονομία της περιοχής ή την ένωσή της με τη Ρωσία <ref>[http://www.iefimerida.gr/node/145984 Ο λαός της Κριμαίας παίρνει την κατάσταση στα χέρια του -Στις 16 Μαρτίου ψηφίζει για την προσάρτηση στη Ρωσία], iefimerida.gr</ref>. Το αποτέλεσμα του δημοψηφίσματος ήταν σε ποσοστό 97% υπέρ της ένωσης της περιοχής με την Ρωσία, κάτι που επικυρώθηκε αργότερα επίσημα. Το αμέσως επόμενο διάστημα η κρίση συνέχισε να υφίσταται με Ρωσόφωνες επαρχίες να ζητούν η μία μετά την άλλη ανεξαρτησία ή ένωση με τη Ρωσία.
 
Το Μάιο του 2014 εξελέγη νέος πρόεδρος ο [[Πέτρο Ποροσένκο]], ο οποίος ανέλαβε καθήκοντα τον επόμενο μήνα.
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