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B cells activated by TI antigens go on to proliferate outside lymphoid follicles but still in SLOs (GCs do not form), possibly undergo immunoglobulin class switching, and differentiate into short-lived plasmablasts that produce early, weak antibodies mostly of class IgM, but also some populations of long-lived plasma cells.<ref name=":11">{{Cite journal|title = Long-Lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells Are Induced Early in Response to T Cell-Independent or T Cell-Dependent Antigens|journal = The Journal of Immunology|date = 2012-06-01|issn = 0022-1767|pmc = 4341991|pmid = 22529295|pages = 5389–5396|volume = 188|issue = 11|doi = 10.4049/jimmunol.1102808|first1 = Alexandra|last1 = Bortnick|first2 = Irene|last2 = Chernova|first3 = William J.|last3 = Quinn|first4 = Monica|last4 = Mugnier|first5 = Michael P.|last5 = Cancro|first6 = David|last6 = Allman}}</ref>
 
=== Ενεργοποίηση κυττάρων μνήμης Β Memory B cell activation ===
Η ενεργοποίηση των κυττάρων μνήμης Β ξεκινά με την ανίχνευση και τη δέσμευση του αντιγόνου -στόχου τους, το οποίο μοιράζεται το γονικό τους κύτταρο Β.
Memory B cell activation begins with the detection and binding of their target antigen, which is shared by their parent B cell.<ref name=":13">{{Cite journal|title = Molecular programming of B cell memory|journal = Nature Reviews Immunology|volume = 12|issue = 1|pages = 24–34|date = 2011-01-01|pmc = 3947622|pmid = 22158414|doi = 10.1038/nri3128|first1 = Michael|last1 = McHeyzer-Williams|first2 = Shinji|last2 = Okitsu|first3 = Nathaniel|last3 = Wang|first4 = Louise|last4 = McHeyzer-Williams}}</ref> Some memory B cells can be activated without T cell help, such as certain virus-specific memory B cells, but others need T cell help.<ref name=":12" /> Upon antigen binding, the memory B cell takes up the antigen through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degrades it, and presents it to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane.<ref name=":13" /> Memory T helper (T<sub>H</sub>) cells, typically memory follicular T helper (T<sub>FH</sub>) cells, that were derived from T cells activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their TCR.<ref name=":13" /> Following TCR-MHC-II-peptide binding and the relay of other signals from the memory T<sub>FH</sub> cell, the memory B cell is activated and differentiates either into plasmablasts and plasma cells via an extrafollicular response or enter a germinal center reaction where they generate plasma cells and more memory B cells.<ref name=":13" /><ref name=":12" /> It is unclear whether the memory B cells undergo further affinity maturation within these secondary GCs.<ref name=":13" />
Memory B cell activation begins with the detection and binding of their target antigen, which is shared by their parent B cell.<ref name=":13">{{Cite journal|title = Molecular programming of B cell memory|journal = Nature Reviews Immunology|volume = 12|issue = 1|pages = 24–34|date = 2011-01-01|pmc = 3947622|pmid = 22158414|doi = 10.1038/nri3128|first1 = Michael|last1 = McHeyzer-Williams|first2 = Shinji|last2 = Okitsu|first3 = Nathaniel|last3 = Wang|first4 = Louise|last4 = McHeyzer-Williams}}</ref>
Ορισμένα κύτταρα Β μνήμης μπορούν να ενεργοποιηθούν χωρίς βοήθεια Τ κυττάρων, όπως συγκεκριμένα Β κύτταρα μνήμης ειδικά για ιούς, αλλά άλλα χρειάζονται βοήθεια Τ κυττάρων.
Some memory B cells can be activated without T cell help, such as certain virus-specific memory B cells, but others need T cell help.<ref name=":12" /> Κατά τη δέσμευση αντιγόνου, το Β κύτταρο μνήμης αναλαμβάνει το αντιγόνο μέσω ενδοκυττάρωσης που προκαλείται από υποδοχείς, το υποβαθμίζει και το παρουσιάζει στα Τ κύτταρα ως πεπτιδικά τεμάχια σε σύμπλοκο με μόρια MHC-II στην κυτταρική μεμβράνη.
Upon antigen binding, the memory B cell takes up the antigen through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degrades it, and presents it to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane.<ref name=":13" /> Τα κύτταρα Memory T helper (T <sub> H </sub>), τυπικά κύτταρα θυλακοειδούς βοηθού T (T <sub> FH </sub>), που προέρχονται από Τ κύτταρα ενεργοποιημένα με το ίδιο αντιγόνο αναγνωρίζουν και δεσμεύουν αυτά τα MHC -II-πεπτιδικά σύμπλοκα μέσω του TCR τους.
Memory T helper (T<sub>H</sub>) cells, typically memory follicular T helper (T<sub>FH</sub>) cells, that were derived from T cells activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their TCR.<ref name=":13" /> Μετά τη δέσμευση του πεπτιδίου TCR-MHC-II και τη μετάδοση άλλων σημάτων από το κύτταρο μνήμης T <sub> FH </sub>, το Β κύτταρο μνήμης ενεργοποιείται και διαφοροποιείται είτε σε πλασμαβλάστες όσο και σε κύτταρα πλάσματος μέσω μιας εξωφολικής απόκρισης ή εισάγετε ένα βλαστική αντίδραση κέντρου όπου δημιουργούν κύτταρα πλάσματος και περισσότερα κύτταρα Β μνήμης.
Following TCR-MHC-II-peptide binding and the relay of other signals from the memory T<sub>FH</sub> cell, the memory B cell is activated and differentiates either into plasmablasts and plasma cells via an extrafollicular response or enter a germinal center reaction where they generate plasma cells and more memory B cells.<ref name=":13" /><ref name=":12" /> Δεν είναι σαφές εάν τα κύτταρα μνήμης Β υφίστανται περαιτέρω ωρίμανση συγγένειας εντός αυτών των δευτερογενών GC.
It is unclear whether the memory B cells undergo further affinity maturation within these secondary GCs.<ref name=":13" />
 
== B cell types ==
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