Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Αρχαία Ιστορία»

 
Το 1000 ΠΚΕ ξεκίνησε το βασίλειο των [[Μανναίοι|Μανναίων]] στη [[Δυτική Ασία]]. Περίπου τον 10ο έως τον 7ο αιώνα π.Χ., αναπτύχθηκε στη Μεσοποταμία η νεοασσυριακή αυτοκρατορία. Περί το 800 ΠΚΕ ξεκινάει η άνοδος των ελληνικών [[πόλις|πόλεων-κρατών]], ενώ το 776 ΠΚΕ, διεξήχθησαν οι πρώτοι καταγεγραμμένοι [[Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες]] .
 
====Κλασική αρχαιότητα====
{{Κύριο|Κλασική αρχαιότητα}}
[[File:Etruscan civilization map.png|thumbnail|Τα αρχαία βασίλεια των Ετρούσκων στον ιταλικό βορρά. 8ος αι. ΠΚΕ.]]
 
''Classical antiquity'' is a broad term for a long period of cultural [[history]] centered around the [[Mediterranean Sea]], which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded [[Greek language|Greek]] poetry of [[Homer]] (9th century BC), and continues through the rise of [[Christianity]] and the [[fall of the Western Roman Empire]] (5th century AD), ending in the dissolution of classical culture with the close of [[Late Antiquity]].
 
Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many rather disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" typically refers to an idealized vision of later people, of what was, in [[Edgar Allan Poe]]'s words, "the glory that was [[Ancient Greece|Greece]], the grandeur that was [[Ancient Rome|Rome]]!" In the 18th and 19th centuries AD, reverence for classical antiquity was much greater in [[Europe]] and the [[United States]] than it is today. Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome affected [[politics]], [[philosophy]], [[sculpture]], [[literature]], [[theatre]], [[education]], and even [[architecture]] and [[History of sex|sexuality]].
 
In politics, the presence of a [[Roman Emperor]] was felt to be desirable long after the empire fell. This tendency reached its peak when [[Charlemagne]] was [[coronation|crowned]] "Roman Emperor" in the year 800, an act which led to the formation of the [[Holy Roman Empire]]. The notion that an [[emperor]] is a [[monarch]] who outranks a mere king dates from this period. In this political ideal, there would always be a Roman Empire, a state whose jurisdiction extended to the entire civilized world.
 
[[Epic poetry]] in [[Latin]] continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. [[John Milton]] and even [[Arthur Rimbaud]] received their first poetic educations in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, [[pastoral]] verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from [[Greek mythology]] left a deep mark on Western literature.
 
In architecture, there have been several [[Greek Revival]]s, (though while apparently more inspired in retrospect by Roman architecture than Greek). Still, one needs only to look at [[Washington, DC]] to see a city filled with large [[marble]] buildings with façades made out to look like [[Roman temple]]s, with columns constructed in the [[classical orders]] of architecture.
 
In philosophy, the efforts of St [[Thomas Aquinas]] were derived largely from the thought of [[Aristotle]], despite the intervening change in religion from [[paganism]] to Christianity. Greek and Roman authorities such as [[Hippocrates]] and [[Galen]] formed the foundation of the practice of [[medicine]] even longer than Greek thought prevailed in philosophy. In the [[France|French]] theatre, [[tragedy|tragedians]] such as [[Molière]] and [[Jean Racine|Racine]] wrote plays on mythological or classical historical subjects and subjected them to the strict rules of the [[classical unities]] derived from Aristotle's ''[[Poetics (Aristotle)|Poetics]]''. The desire to [[dance]] like a latter-day vision of how the ancient Greeks did it moved [[Isadora Duncan]] to create her brand of [[ballet]]. The [[Renaissance]] was partly caused by the rediscovery of classic antiquity.<ref>''The Renaissance discovery of Classical Antiquity'' by [[Roberto Weiss]]</ref>
 
[[File:Griechischen und phönizischen Kolonien.jpg|right|300px|thumb|The Mediterranean in c. the 4th century BC. Phoenician cities are labelled in yellow, Greek cities in red, and other cities in grey.]]
 
==Παραπομπές σημειώσεις==
81.581

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