Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Επαναστάσεις του 1989»

καμία σύνοψη επεξεργασίας
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<br />{{Infobox civil conflict|title=Revolutions of 1989|side3=|partof=the [[Cold War]]|image=File:Thefalloftheberlinwall1989.JPG|caption=The fall of the [[Berlin Wall]] in November 1989|date=4 June 1989 – 26 December 1991<br>({{age in years, months, weeks and days|month1=6|day1=4|year1=1989|month2=12|day2=26|year2 =1991}})|place=[[Central and Eastern Europe]]|coordinates=|causes=* [[Political repression]]
 
* [[Authoritarianism]]
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* [[Religious persecution]]
[[Αρχείο:USSR_Map_timeline.gif|μικρογραφία|Κινούμενος χάρτης που δείχνει την πτώση των κομμουνιστικών καθεστώτων στην Ανατολική Ευρώπη και την αποσύνθεση της Σοβιετικής Ένωσης, η οποία αργότερα οδήγησε σε κάποιες συγκρούσεις στον μετασοβιετικό χώρο]]
* Severe [[economic crisis]]
* [[Consumerism|Consumerist]] pressure<ref>{{cite book|last1=Kochanowicz|first1=Jacek|editor1-last=Berend|editor1-first=Ivan T.|editor1-link=Iván T. Berend|title=Backwardness and Modernization: Poland and Eastern Europe in the 16th-20th Centuries|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f6RGpe1mjzQC|series=Collected studies: Studies in East-Central Europe|volume=858li|location=Aldershot|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|publication-date=2006|page=198|isbn=9780754659051|accessdate=14 November 2017|quote=Within the communist world, certain strata of population were particularly sensitive to Western influences. Late communism produced sizable, specific middle classes of relatively well-educated professionals, technicians and even highly skilled blue-collar workers. [...] These classes had no attachment whatsoever to Marxist-Leninist ideology, while they became attracted to the Western way of life. Many members of the ruling 'nomenklatura' shared the same sentiments, as Western consumerism and individualism seemed more attractive to them than communist collective Puritanism. There were two very important consequences of this, one economic, and the second political. The economic one was the attractiveness of consumerism [...]. The political consequence was the pressure to increase the margins of political freedom and public space.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Cross|first1=Gary S.|chapter=1: The Irony of the Century|title=An All-consuming Century: Why Commercialism Won in Modern America|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Xc1fNOhoZvkC|location=New York|publisher=Columbia University Press|publication-date=2000|page=8|isbn=9780231113120|accessdate=14 November 2017|quote=For East Europeans, the promise of mass consumption was preferable to the nightmare of solidarity even if it meant also the dominance of money and the private control of wealth. In reality, the fall of communism had more to do with the appeals of capitalist consumerism than political democracy.}}</ref>|goals=* Economic reforms including [[privatisation]] of state-owned industry
* [[Democracy]]
* [[Civil liberty]]
* [[Self-determination|National self-determination]]
* [[Free and fair elections]]
* [[Recall election|Right to recall of elected officials]]
* [[Political freedom]]s
* [[Labour rights]]
* [[Human rights]]
* [[Open borders]]
* [[Free markets]]|methods=[[Mass protest]]s<br>[[Civil unrest]]<br>[[Riot]]s|result=* End of the [[Soviet Union]] as a [[superpower]] and [[Dissolution of the Soviet Union|its dissolution]], bringing the [[Cold War]] to an end
* Dissolution of [[Warsaw Pact]] and the [[Eastern Bloc]]
* [[New world order (politics)|New world order]] as the [[United States]] became the world's sole superpower<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1217752.stm "Country profile: United States of America"]. BBC News. Retrieved 11 March 2007.</ref>
* Formation of the [[Russian Federation]] and [[Post-Soviet states|14 other states]] from the former Soviet Union
* Dismantling of the [[command economies]] and [[privatization]] of state-owned industry
* Transfer of power to pro-[[capitalist]] governments in [[History of Poland (1945–1989)#Politics of the last years of the People's Republic and the transition period|Poland]], [[End of Communism in Hungary (1989)|Hungary]], [[Die Wende|East Germany]], [[Velvet Revolution|Czechoslovakia]], [[Romanian Revolution|Romania]], [[People's Republic of Bulgaria#End of the People's Republic|Bulgaria]], [[Mongolian Revolution of 1990|Mongolia]] and [[Fall of Communism in Albania|Albania]]
* [[Communists]] recast themselves into adherents of [[social democracy]] and [[democratic socialism]]
* [[German reunification|Reunification of Germany]]
* [[Yemeni unification|Unification of Yemen]]
* [[Dissolution of Czechoslovakia|Breakup]] of [[Czechoslovakia]]
* [[Breakup of Yugoslavia|Breakup]] of [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]] and the beginning of the [[Yugoslav Wars]]
* Scepticism about [[Communism]] all over the world associated with decreasing support for various Communist and left-wing parties, especially in Europe and Asia: collapse of Communism in [[Democratic Republic of Afghanistan#The fall: 1989–1992|Afghanistan]], [[People's Republic of Angola|Angola]], [[People's Republic of Benin#Return to democracy|Benin]], [[People's Republic of the Congo#Transition|Congo-Brazzaville]], [[People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia#Failures and collapse|Ethiopia]], [[People's Republic of Mozambique|Mozambique]], [[Somali Rebellion|Somalia]] and [[South Yemen#Reforms and attempts for unification|Yemen]]
* The spread of [[Western culture]] and capitalism to previously sealed-off [[Communist state|Communist countries]], including [[Russia]] and [[Eastern Europe]]
* Expansion of the [[Internet]] in former Communist countries
* End of the [[Soviet–Afghan War]]
* [[Tiananmen Square protests of 1989|Suppression]] of the [[Chinese democracy movement]]
* Beginning of the [[Special Period]] in [[Cuba]]|side1=Citizens of [[Eastern Bloc]] nations|side2=|leadfigures1=|leadfigures2=|leadfigures3=|howmany1=|howmany2=|howmany3=|casualties1=|casualties2=|casualties3=|injuries=|fatalities=|arrests=|detentions=|charged=|fined=|casualties_label=|notes=Also known as Fall of Communism, Fall of Stalinism, Collapse of Communism, Collapse of Socialism, Fall of Socialism, Autumn of Nations, Fall of Nations, European Spring}}<br />
[[Αρχείο:USSR_Map_timeline.gif|μικρογραφία|An animated series of maps showing the fall of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the [[disintegration of the Soviet Union]] which later leads to some conflicts in the post-Soviet space]]
Οι '''επαναστάσεις του 1989''' αποτέλεσαν μέρος ενός επαναστατικού κύματος στα τέλη της δεκαετίας του 1980 και στις αρχές της δεκαετίας του 1990 που οδήγησε στο τέλος της κομμουνιστικής κυριαρχίας στην [[Κεντρική Ευρώπη|Κεντρική]] και [[Ανατολική Ευρώπη]] και πέραν αυτής. Η περίοδος αποκαλείται μερικές φορές '''Φθινόπωρο των Εθνών''',<ref name="NedelmannSztompka1993">{{cite book|title=Sociology in Europe: In Search of Identity|first1=Birgitta|last1=Nedelmann|first2=Piotr|last2=Sztompka|publisher=Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-3-11-013845-0|date=1 January 1993|pages=1–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cOqTuIDuuMMC&pg=PA1}}</ref><ref name="BernhardSzlajfer2010">{{cite book|title=From the Polish Underground: Selections from Krytyka, 1978–1993|first1=Michael|last1=Bernhard|first2=Henryk|last2=Szlajfer|publisher=Penn State Press|isbn=0-271-04427-6|date=1 November 2010|pages=221–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YE29dvVxvdgC&pg=PA221}}</ref><ref name="Luciano2008">{{cite book|title=Cinema of Silvio Soldini: Dream, Image, Voyage|first=Bernadette|last=Luciano|publisher=Troubador|isbn=978-1-906510-24-4|year=2008|pages=77–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eBdKQYm4tyYC&pg=PA77}}</ref><ref name="Grofman2001">{{cite book|title=Political Science as Puzzle Solving|first=Bernard|last=Grofman|publisher=University of Michigan Press|isbn=0-472-08723-1|year=2001|pages=85–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SuIZ0wkeTmIC&pg=PA85}}</ref><ref name="SadurskiCzarnota2006">{{cite book|title=Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargemente for the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders|first1=Wojciech|last1=Sadurski|first2=Adam|last2=Czarnota|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1-4020-3842-6|date=30 July 2006|pages=285–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_c9HAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA285|first3=Martin|last3=Krygier}}</ref> ένα παιχνίδι με τον όρο Άνοιξη των Εθνών που μερικές φορές χρησιμοποιείται για να περιγράψει τις [[επαναστάσεις του 1848]].
 
 
== Παραπομπές ==
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{{Reflist}}[[Αρχείο:USSR_Map_timeline.gif|μικρογραφία|An animated series of maps showing the fall of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the [[disintegration of the Soviet Union]] which later leads to some conflicts in the post-Soviet space]]
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